Smith, M.R., 1944
Very little is known about the biology of these ants. Collections have shown, however, that the colonies are small and that they are found in the soil or in rotting wood. No information is available on feeding habits, but the species of Acanthognathus are probably predaceous like some of their close relatives.
|At a Glance||• Ergatoid queen|
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
The length and shape of the antennal scape, and the nature of the sculpturing of the head and thorax readily distinguish the worker of brevicornis from those of the other species.
Keys including this Species
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
The ants (type material) were collected sometime during the period from June to October 1943, and bear the label, Zetek No. 5105, Nothing is known concerning their biology.
Ergatoid queens occur as well as winged queens (Silva & Brandao 2014).
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- brevicornis. Acanthognathus brevicornis Smith, M.R. 1944c: 151 (w.q.) PANAMA. See also: Brown & Kempf, 1969: 94; Bolton, 2000: 16.
- Holotype, worker, Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island, Panama, James Zetek, U.S.N.M.No. 56862, National Museum of Natural History.
- Paratype, 3 queens, Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island, Panama, James Zetek, U.S.N.M.No. 56862, National Museum of Natural History.
Length (including mandibles) 3 mm.
Head subcordate, the posterior border strongly and angularly emarginate. Antenna 11-segmented; scape short (approximately three-fourths the length of the head measured from the anterior border of the clypeus to the posterior corner), not attaining the posterior border at any point, slender, curved and enlarged toward the apex but narrowing again before its junction with the funiculus; first, ninth, and tenth funicular segments long, the second through the eighth short and somewhat, indistinct. Eye placed approximately at the middle of the side of the head, oval, well developed, with about 7 to 8 facets in its greatest diameter. Clypeus longer than broad, subtruncate anteriorly, with the posterior border extending between the frontal carinae to the approximate limits of the latter. Frontal carinae short, each forming a prominent lobe which conceals the insertion of the antenna. Mandibles 0.86 mm. long (slightly shorter than the head), elongate, slender, subparallel, porrect, each with 3 curved, hook-like apical teeth, the median of which is the longest. Inner border of mandible with a slight enlargement near the middle, and a number of very minute denticulae between the enlargement and the apex. Ventral surface of each mandible near the base with a slender, curved spine which is apically bidentate and is directed somewhat mesoposteriorly. Humerus of prothorax with a prominent, tubercle-like spine. Promesonotal suture more or less indistinct. Mesoepinotal impression pronounced. Epinotum higher than long and bearing a pair of well-developed, acutely tipped spines. Petiole strongly pedunculate. Petiole and postpetiole rather nodiform, and without spongiform processes such as occur in Strumigenys.
Head with a shining appearance due to the nature of the sculpturing which consists of rather sparse, subcircular depressions, each bearing a central elevation from which arises a short, curved, bluntly tipped or claviform hair. In the posterior part of the head the punctures are either absent or else separated by a space more than their greatest diameter. All the interspaces are smooth and shining. Thorax so weakly sculptured that it is also shining. Body dark reddish brown with slightly lighter appendages.
Dealated. Length (including mandibles) 3.85 mm.
Besides the usual caste differences the female differs from the worker in its larger size, more convex and larger eyes (with 12-13 facets in their greatest diameter) and coarser sculpturing on the head. The punctures on the head are not dense enough to give the head a subopaque appearance.
Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (James Zetek). Described from a holotype worker and an allotype female. Two paratype females do not differ appreciably from the allotype. All of these are deposited in the United States National Museum under U. S. N. M. No. 56862.
- Bolton, B. 1999. Ant genera of the tribe Dacetonini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Nat. Hist. 3 33: 1639-1689 PDF (page 1652, see also)
- Bolton, B. 2000. The ant tribe Dacetini. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 65: 1-1028 (page 16, see also)
- Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kempf, W. W. 1969. A revision of the neotropical dacetine ant genus Acanthognathus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Camb.) 76: 87-109 PDF (page 94, redescription of worker and queen)
- Fernández, F.; Palacio, E. E.; MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. S. 1996. Introducción al estudio de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Colombia. Pp. 349-412 in: Andrade, M. G., Amat García, G., Fernández, F. (eds.) Insectos de Colombia. Estudios escogido (page 381, see also)
- Galvis, J. P. & Fernández, F. 2009. Ants of Colombia X. Acanthognathus with the description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Revista Colombiana de Entomología 35 (2): 245-249 PDF
- Kempf, W. W. 1964e. Miscellaneous studies on Neotropical ants. III. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 7: 45-71 PDF (page 67, redescription of worker and queen)
- Kempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da regia~o Neotropical. Stud. Entomol. 15: 3-344 (page 9, catalogue)
- Silva, T.S.R., Brandao, C.R.F. 2014. Further ergatoid gyne records in the ant tribe Dacetini (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Neotropical Entomology 43, 161–171 (DOI 10.1007/s13744-013-0192-7).
- Smith, M. R. 1944c. A key to the genus Acanthognathus Mayr, with the description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 46: 150-152 PDF (page 151, worker, queen described)
- Sosa-Calvo, J., T.R. Schultz, and J.S. LaPolla. 2010. A review of the dacetine ants of Guyana (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 19(1): 12-43. PDF