Bothriomyrmex

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Bothriomyrmex
Bothriomyrmex paradoxus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Tribe: Bothriomyrmecini
Genus: Bothriomyrmex
Emery, 1869
Type species
Bothriomyrmex costae
Diversity
29 species
(Species Checklist)

Bothriomyrmex paradoxus casent0103277 profile 1.jpg

Bothriomyrmex paradoxus

Bothriomyrmex paradoxus casent0103277 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Evolutionary Relationships
Dolichoderinae

Tapinomini
  (6 genera)




Bothriomyrmecini


Loweriella
  (1 species)



Ravavy
  (1 species)





Arnoldius
  (4 species)





Bothriomyrmex
  (29 species)



Chronoxenus
  (9 species)









Dolichoderini
  (1 genus)



Leptomyrmecini
  (16 genera)





Based on Ward et al. 2010.

Shattuck (1992) - Bothriomyrmex occurs in a wide variety of habitats, including grasslands, savanna woodlands, mallee forests, and lowland rain forests. Nests occur in the soil (with or without covering) or in rotten wood, and workers are known to forage on trees. At least some species are temporary social parasites of Tapinoma (Santschi 1906) or Iridomyrmex (strict sense) (Donisthorpe 1944a).

Identification

Shattuck (1992) - Worker: Palp formula 4:3 or 2:2; compound eyes with between 10 and about 40 ommitidia; mandibles with 5-6 teeth, 0-5 denticles, a distinct basal angle, and a smooth basal margin; frontal carinae reduced or absent; anterior clypeal margin with 2 to 12 downward curved hairs which are about the same length as the closed mandibles; medial hypostoma absent. Europe and northern Africa east through India to Taiwan, and south to Australia. Queen: Palp formula 4:3 or 2:2; medial hypostoma absent; anterior clypeal margin with 2 to 6 moderately curved setae; apical tooth of mandible elongate and much longer than subapical; dorsal face of propodeum shorter than declivitous face. Male: Medial hypostoma absent; palp formula 4:3 or 2:2; pygostyles vestigial.

Workers are morphologically similar to those of Doleromyrma and smaller species of Tapinoma and Technomyrmex. They may be immediately recognized, however, by their smaller compound eyes, distinct basal mandibular angle, and 4:3 or 2:2 palp formula.

Distribution

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Bothriomyrmex Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Bothriomyrmex Species Richness.png

Biology

Dubovikov and Longino (2004) - Little is known of the biology of Bothriomyrmex in general, but several species are known to be temporary social parasites, using colonies of Tapinoma to establish their own colonies (Santschi 1906, Wheeler 1910). Lloyd et al. (1986) found that the pygidial glands of Bothriomyrmex syria queens and the Tapinoma simrothi host workers contained the same ketone, and they suggested that this aids the queen in gaining access to the Tapinoma colony. All the known species have diminutive queens, so temporary social parasitism could be the mode of colony founding for the whole genus.

Fernández and Guerrero (2008) - Technomyrmex and Bothriomyrmex could represent those groups probably widespread in the past and now limited to some scattered forested spots in the Neotropical forests, probably as retreating lineages. Leptomyrmex, also present in Miocene times were extinct in the New World, as some others ants taxa (Wilson 1988).

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club gradual • Palp formula 4,3; 2,3; 2,2 • Total dental count 5-9 • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 pectinate • Eyes present • Scrobes absent • Sting absent

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • BOTHRIOMYRMEX [Dolichoderinae: Bothriomyrmecini]
    • Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869c: 117. Type-species: Bothriomyrmex costae, by monotypy.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Shattuck (1992):

Worker

HEAD. Vertex weakly convex to weakly concave. Compound eyes present, approximately round (sometimes reduced to about 10 ommitidia, but always distinct); relatively anterior on head. Ocelli absent. Antennae 12 segmented. Scape relatively short, at most surpassing the vertex by less than one-half (often less than one-third) its length. Anterolateral clypeal margin even with the mediolateral region. Anteromedial clypeal margin entire, without a central notch or concavity of any type, or with a broad, shallow concavity. Anterior clypeal setae 2-12; about the same length as the closed mandibles; moderately curved ventrally. Posterior clypeal margin even with or anterior to the anterior surfaces of the antennal socket cavities. Anterior tentorial pit nearer the antennal socket than the mandibular insertion. Frontal carina reduced or absent. Anterolateral hypostoma reduced to a thin sclerite. Medial hypostoma absent. Psammophore absent. MOUTHPARTS. Palp formula 4:3 or 2:2. Third maxillary palp segment (when present) subequal in length to segment 4. Mandible with 5-6 teeth and 0-5 denticles. Apical tooth slightly longer than the subapical tooth. Basal angle distinct, with a well developed tooth or angle separating the masticatory and basal margins. Basal margin smooth and without teeth or denticles. MESOSOMA. Posteroventral pronotum lateral, rounded or angled. Mesopleural process absent. Anteromedial mesosternum even with the lateral regions. Declivitous face of propodeum flat; dorsal face convex (sometimes weakly), shorter than the declivitous face. Propodeal angle indistinct to moderately distinct. Mesosomal spines and tooth absent. Erect pronotal hairs absent. Dorsal pro-mesonotal junction with the pronotum and mesonotum even, or with the mesonotum below the pronotum. Metanotal groove either reduced to a suture and with the mesonotum and propodeum forming a continuous, uninterrupted surface, or forming a distinct angle between the mesonotum and propodeum. Metanotal spiracle lateral and ventral of the dorsal surface when viewed in lateral profile. Propodeal spiracle lateral and ventral of the propodeal dorsum. Hind tibial spur with well developed barbules along entire inner surface (except extreme base). PETIOLE. Scale present; ridged and with a distinct angle dorsally; varying from moderately inclined anteriorly (but with the anterior and posterior faces approximately the same length) to strongly inclined anteriorly (and with the anterior face much shorter than the posterior face). Venter with a well developed lobe. GASTER. First tergite projecting anteriorly and concealing the petiole in dorsal view and with a groove or indentation for the reception of the entire height of the petiole. Anteriortergosternal suture of the first segment extending laterally from the helcium, either without a dorsal arch or with a distinct dorsal arch which is approximately the same height as the helcial dorsum. Fifth tergite ventral, gaster with 4 apparent tergites. Gastral compression weakly dorsoventral. Fourth sternite flat across entire posterior border. GENERAL CHARACTERS. Worker caste monomorphic. Chromosome number 11 (n=11, B. sp., Hauschteck 1963; B. gibbus, Crozier 1975). Integument thin and flexible, weakly sculptured. PROVENTRICULUS. Not examined.

Queen

HEAD. Vertex flat. Compound eyes relatively anterior on head. Antennae 12 segmented. Scape short, surpassing the vertex by less than one-half scape length. Anterolateral clypeal margin even with the mediolateral region. Anteromedial clypeal margin entire, without a central notch or concavity of any type, or with a broad, shallow concavity. Anterior clypeal setae 2-6; short, less than twice the maximum scape diameter to about the same length as the closed mandibles; moderately curved ventrally. Posterior clypeal margin between the anterior and posterior surfaces of the antennal socket cavities. Anterior tentorial pit nearer the antennal socket than the mandibular insertion. Anterolateral hypostoma reduced to a thin sclerite. Medial hypostoma absent. Psammophore absent. MOUTHPARTS. Palp formula 4:3 or 2:2. Mandible with 1-5 teeth (if 1 tooth, it is apical and the remainder ofthe masticatory border is smooth) and 0-4 denticles. Apical tooth elongate and much longer than the subapical tooth. Basal angle distinct, with a well developed tooth or angle separating the masticatory and basal margins. Basal margin smooth and without teeth or denticles. MESOSOMA. Posteroventral pronotum lateral, rounded or angled. Episternal suture complete. Mesopleural process absent. Anteromedial mesosternum even with the lateral regions. Axilla constricted medially. or absent dorsally (when present, entire). Declivitous and dorsal faces of propodeum convex to flat; dorsal face shorter than the declivitous face. Propodeal angle distinct. Propodeal suture absent. Mesosomal spines and tooth absent. Erect mesoscutal hairs absent. Propodeal spiracle lateral and ventral of the propodeal dorsum. Hind tibial spur with well developed barbules along entire inner surface (except extreme base). WINGS. Radial cell closed or open. Fore wing with 1 cubital and 0-1 discoidal cells. Hind wing with 1-2 cells. PETIOLE. Scale present; ridged and with a distinct angle dorsally; varying from moderately inclined anteriorly (but with the anterior and posterior faces approximately the same length) to strongly inclined anteriorly (and with the anterior face much shorter than the posterior face). Venter with a well developed, rounded lobe. GASTER. First segment projecting anteriorly and concealing the petiole in dorsal view and with a groove or indentation for the reception of the entire height of the petiole. Fifth tergite vertical and with the distal terminus of the gaster not well defined. Gastral compression absent (gaster circular in cross section). Fourth sternite flat across entire posterior border.

Male

HEAD. Inner margin of eye entire, flat. Scape length much longer than the length of funicular segments 1 +2+3 but not exceeding the vertex. First funicular segment cylindrical or cone-shaped. Second funicular segment cylindrical, straight. Funicular segments 2 and 3 at most twice as long as broad. Third and fourth funicular segments straight. Anteromedial clypeal margin entire, without a central notch or concavity of any type. Anterior clypeal setae 4-10; short, about as long as the maximum diameter of the scape; straight. Posterior clypeal margin between the anterior and posterior surfaces of the antennal socket cavities. Anterior tentorial pit nearer the antennal socket than the mandibular insertion. Anterolateral hypostoma reduced to a thin sclerite. Medialhypostomaabsent. MOUTHPARTS. Palpformula4:2 or2:2. Mandible with 2-3 teeth and no denticles (rarely with 3 teeth and a very small denticle). Apical tooth varying from slightly longer than, to elongate and much longer than, the subapical tooth. Basal angle indistinct, with a relatively uninterrupted curve between the two margins and without a distinct tooth or angle. Basal margin smooth and without teeth or denticles. MESOSOMA. Posteroventral pronotum lateral, rounded or angled. Episternal suture present, complete. Anteromedial mesosternum even with the lateral regions. Axilla constricted medially or absent dorsally. Anterior axillar suture straight. Declivitous face of propodeum convex; dorsal face convex, subequal in length to the declivitous face. Propodeal angle distinct. WINGS. Radial cell closed or open. Fore wing with 1 cubital and 0-1 discoidal cells. Pterostigmal appendage absent. Hind wing with 1-2 cells. PETIOLE. Scale present; ridged and with a distinct angle dorsally; vertical and not inclined anteriorly. Venter with a well developed lobe. Attachment to gaster fairly broad, but with a distinct posterior petiolar face. GASTER. First segment vertical and not concealing the petiole in dorsal view and with a groove or indentation for the reception of the entire height of the petiole. GENITALIA. Pygostyles vestigial. Posterior margin of subgenital plate convex. Paramere entire. Digitus with a down-turned tip. Cuspis absent. Ventral lobe of voselia absent. Aedeagus without ventral teeth.

Larva

Shape dolichoderoid. Protuberances present as 2 bosses located ventrolaterally on prothorax. Body hairs sparse; simple; short. 8 spiracular pairs. Antennae short.

References

  • André, E. 1881c. Catalogue raisonné des Formicides provenant du voyage en Orient de M. Abeille de Perrin et description des espèces nouvelles. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (6)(1): 53-78 (page 64, Bothriomyrmex in Formicinae [Formicidae])
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 384, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderidae)
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 26, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae, Dolichoderini)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 84, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae, Dolichoderini)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 88, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 170, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae)
  • Dubovikoff, D.A. 2005. The system of taxon Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869 sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and relatives genera. Kavkazskii Entomologicheskii Byulleten 1(1): 89-94 (page 91, combination in Iridomyrmecini)
  • Dubovikoff, D.A. and Longino, J. T. 2004. A new species of the genus Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) from Costa Rica. Zootaxa. 776:1-10. (page 3, queen, male described)
  • Emery, C. 1869c. Descrizione di una nuova formica italiana. Annu. Mus. Zool. R. Univ. Napoli 5: 117-118 (page 117, Bothriomyrmex as genus)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 771, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae)
  • Emery, C. 1913a [1912]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137: 1-50 (page 27, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 454, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae [Dolichoderidae])
  • Fernández, F. and R. J. Guerrero. 2008. Technomyrmex (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) in the New World: synopsis and description of a new species. Revista Colombiana de Entomología. 34:110-115.
  • Forel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 15: 337-392 (page 380, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae [Dolichoderidae])
  • Forel, A. 1895f. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part V. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 9: 453-472 (page 469, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 248, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)
  • Shattuck, S. O. 1992c. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 21: 1-181 (page 54, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae, Dolichoderini)
  • Shattuck, S. O. 1994. Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 112:i-xix, 1-241. (page 31, catalogue)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 142, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 689, Bothriomyrmex in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)