| Bothroponera cariosa|
The sparse number of known records with collection details state the ants were found in rainforest and primary forest habitats. Little else is known about the biology of this species.
Joma and Mackay (2015) - A member of the Bothroponera pumicosa species complex. The total length of the worker B. cariosa is 10.15 - 11.50 mm. The head is subquadrate. The anterior medial border of the clypeus is “u” shaped with the medial longitudinal clypeal area raised to form a sharp carina. The mandibles are partially covered by weakly defined striae with scattered coarse punctures. The scape does not reach the posterior lateral border of the head.
Bothroponera cariosa is similar to many other species of the Bothroponera pumicosa species complex with a “u” shaped anterior medial margin of the clypeus (e.g. Bothroponera berthoudi, Bothroponera strigulosa, Bothroponera pumicosa, and Bothroponera laevissima), but the anterior medial area of the clypeus is developed into a sharp longitudinal carina, which is similar to that of B. strigulosa. The sharp carina is partially present in B. pumicosa while it is absent in B. berthoudi and B. laevissima.
Bothroponera granosa is the other species in the B. pumicosa species complex that has the clypeus raised to form a sharp carina, but the anterior medial margin of the clypeus is “v” shaped. The “v” shaped clypeus is also present in Bothroponera aspera and Bothroponera umgodikulula, but both B. aspera and B. umgodikulula lack the carina and the surface of the disc is smooth and rounded. This area is formed into partial carinae in Bothroponera montivaga and Bothroponera cavernosa. The petiole viewed from above is similar to that of B. berthoudi, but is definitely indented posteriorly in B. cariosa, but nearly straight and not indented in B. berthoudi. Bothroponera cariosa has total length about 11.50 mm, which is longer than that of B. berthoudi (9.60 – 12 mm) while it is smaller than that of B. cavernosa (12 mm), B. montivaga (12.20 - 12.65 mm), B. granosa (13.75 - 14.50 mm), B. strigulosa (12.20 mm), B. umgodikulula (14.80 - 15.65 mm), B. laevissima (12 - 13.00 mm), and B. aspera (12 – 13 mm). The total length of Bothroponera pumicosa ranges from 11.00 - 11.65, which overlaps the total length of B. cariosa.
Keys including this Species
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
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The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- cariosa. Bothroponera cariosa Emery, 1895h: 20 (w.) MOZAMBIQUE. Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera): Emery, 1901a: 45; in Bothroponera: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 72; in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 303; in Bothroponera: Joma & Mackay, 2013: 3; Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 76.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Joma and Mackay (2015) - (n=2 for measurements), HL 2.25 - 2.50, HW 1.95 - 2.15, ML 1.25 - 1.40, EW 0.30, EL 0.35 - 0.40, SL 1.45 - 1.60, FL 2.45 - 2.75, WL 2.90 - 3.35, WPL 3.80 - 4.40, PL 1.15 - 1.25, PW 1.20 - 1.45, PH 1.25 - 1.50, CI 86 - 87, OI 17.94 - 18.60, MandI 55.56 – 56.00, SI 74, PetI 104 – 116. Maximum clypeal width 1.90 mm; mandibles with 7 teeth, partially covered by weakly defined striae with scattered coarse punctures; maximum frontal lobe width 0.95 mm; length of malar space 0.40 - 0.60 mm, length from upper edge of eye to edge of posterior lobe 1.20 - 1.55 mm; compound eyes relatively large; head coarsely foveolate; lower margin of pronotum straight with rounded inferior and anteroinferior pronotal processes; basalar sclerite oval-shaped; antennae, legs, mandibles shiny; petiole thick, anterior face and apex rounded, seen from above slightly narrowed anteriorly with depression on upper medial margin between two edges posteriorly (seen from above), posterior face vertical (side view), slightly concave; sternopetiolar process developed with one tooth pointed ventrally; entire surface covered with fine scattered suberect to erect hairs, including mandibles, scapes; head covered with short (0.05 - 0.10 mm) erect golden hairs, pronotum, mesonotum, propodeum covered with short (0.05 - 0.15 mm) erect golden hairs, petiole, postpetiole, entire gaster covered with longer (0.15 - 0.25 mm) erect golden hairs; head, entire mesosoma (pronotum, mesonotum, mesopleuron, propodeum), petiole, postpetiole, entire gastral segments black; appendages (legs, antennae, mandibles) reddish brown; clypeus dark-brown; funiculus brown.
Joma and Mackay (2015) - MOZAMBIQUE: Delagoa Bay, mountains, 25°59’0’’ S; 32°42’0’’ E, type, Bothroponera cariosa Emery, Holotypus Pachycondyla cariosa Emery 1895, Museo Geneva coll. C. Emery (1w holotype, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa).
- Brown, W. L., Jr. 1995a. [Untitled. Taxonomic changes in Pachycondyla attributed to Brown.] Pp. 302-311 in: Bolton, B. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 303, Combination in Pachycondyla)
- Emery, C. 1895i. Voyage de M. E. Simon dans l'Afrique australe (janvier-avril 1893). 3e mémoire. Formicides. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 64: 15-56 (page 20, worker described)
- Emery, C. 1901b. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 45: 32-54 (page 45, Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera))
- Joma, A.M.A. & Mackay, W.P. 2015. Revision of the African ants of the Bothroponera pumicosa species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Sociobiology 62: 538-563 (DOI: 10.13102/sociobiology.v62i4.845).
- Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa. 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1)
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1971c. The larvae of the ant genus Bothroponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 73: 386-394 (page 389, larva described)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1922b. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. II. The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 39-269 (page 72, Combination in Bothroponera)