| Bothroponera perroti|
Although the large size of the species offers an opportunity for behavioral studies, very little is known about its biology. Field work over the past 15 years has found this species foraging most frequently on the ground and in leaf litter, and very rarely on lower vegetation. It usually nests in rotten logs, soil layers, or rarely tree stumps. (Rakotonirina & Fisher, 2013)
Rakotonirina & Fisher (2013) - With head in full-face view, antennal scape not surpassing posterior cephalic margin; dorsum of head and mesosoma not finely striate, dorsum of the body with erect slender hairs and pubescence; basal half of antennal scape rounded; dorsal outline of mesosoma forming a continuous convexity with a nearly rounded junction between propodeal dorsum and declivitous surface; anterior half of fourth abdominal tergite (gastral tergite 2) mostly smooth and shiny between large punctures.
Bothroponera perroti is recognized by the following combination of characters: continuous convexity of the dorsal outline of its mesosoma, nearly rounded junction of the propodeal dorsum and declivity, strong median excision of the posterior cephalic margin, and strongly concave anterior margin of clypeus. Along its geographical range, B. perroti shows a large range of phenotypic variation. Based on these morphological variations, and the scarcity of specimens collected earlier in Madagascar, this species likely misled taxonomists, who erected a separate subspecies, B. perroti admista Forel, for a different populations. Forel (1892) had to decide on the species-level status of admista without being able to compare it with the type of B. perroti or with additional samples of B. perroti throughout its range. However, the large number of samples of B. perroti collected during recent ant inventories in Madagascar, covering most of this ant’s distributional range, present evidence to synonymize the subspecies perroti admista under B. perroti.
Keys including this Species
Pachycondyla perroti is endemic to Madagascar, generally occurs in the humid habitats in the east of the island, ranging from the littoral region to the mountaintops, as well as the transitional forests of the Ampasindava peninsula (Ambilanivy Forest) and Daraina in the western slope of the northern part of the island. This species is also known to occupy secondary and disturbed habitats.
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
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Distribution based on specimens
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- perroti. Bothroponera perroti Forel, 1891b: 131, pl. 4, fig. 6 (w.) MADAGASCAR. Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera): Emery, 1901a: 45; in Bothroponera: Joma & Mackay, 2013: 2; Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 76. Senior synonym of admista: Rakotonirina & Fisher, 2013a: 125.
- admista. Bothroponera perroti r. admista Forel, 1892l: 251 (w.) MADAGASCAR. Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera): Emery, 1901a: 45. Raised to species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 35. Subspecies of perroti: Wasmann, 1897: 250; Emery, 1901a: 45. Junior synonym of perroti: Rakotonirina & Fisher, 2013a: 125.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Rakotonirina and Fisher (2013):
(n=26): HL: 2.42–2.71, HW: 2.27–2.58, CI: 91–98, SL: 1.69–2.01, SI: 69–81, PW: 1.58–1.81, WL: 3.10–3.55, NL: 0.87–1.04, NW: 1.02–1.23, NH: 1.18–1.45, DNI: 108–130, LNI: 125–144.
Worker. Head as long as broad, but narrower in front than behind, with slightly convex sides; posterior margin markedly medially excised, and strongly concave. With head in full-face view, eyes large but less than maximum width of antennal scape, located more to the front and not splitting the sidelines of head. Scape subcylindrical, with rounded leading edge, not reaching the posterior margin of head. Median lobe of clypeus not projecting anteriorly, anterior margin truncate and strongly notched medially. Mandible triangular, the masticatory margin bearing eight short, robust, and distinct teeth. With mesosoma in profile, the outline of dorsum a continuous convexity, with rounded junction of propodeal dorsum and declivitous surface. Mesopleural sulcus not clearly visible or absent. Hind legs with rounded basitarsus, the inside surface of which is not concave. In dorsal view, petiole node anteriorly rounded and posteriorly truncate. Sculpture of head dorsum finely ruguloreticulate and usually superimposed with punctures which become larger on the front toward the posterior margin; the lateral surface reticulate-punctulate.
Mandibles faintly rugulose basally, with scattered piligerous punctures, and increasingly smooth and shining approaching the apical margin; in some specimens mandibles striate or smooth and shiny apart from the piligerous pits. Dorsum of mesosoma and petiole, and first two gastral tergites, with sparse and coarse shallow punctures, the spaces between which are smooth or with closely spaced, small punctures. Lateral portion of mesosoma and petiole node densely and finely reticulate to reticulate rugulose, superimposed with small punctures; occasionally the petiole is coarsely punctate or with effaced large punctures. Brown-yellowish, slender and erect hairs covering the entire body except the lateral portion of mesosoma; pubescence quite abundant. Integument matte or shiny, coloration dark red to black, with lighter tip of gaster and appendages.
(n=7): HL: 2.52–2.81, HW: 2.44–2.81, CI: 96–101, SL: 1.86–2.07, SI: 69–76, EL: 0.48–0.51, OI: 17–20, PW: 2.00–2.31, WL: 3.82–4.16, NL: 1–1.11, NW: 1.34–1.50, NH: 1.41–1.51, DNI: 131–142, LNI: 136–143. The queen of B. perroti is relatively similar to workers, but with the typical differences of the queen caste: Head relatively broader, body size much larger, and mesopleural sulcus distinct.
Rakotonirina & Fisher (2013) - Holotype worker, Madagascar, Toamasina, Fenerive (E. Perrot), AntWeb specimen code: CASENT0101401 (Musee National d'Histoire Naturelle) [examined].
- Emery, C. 1901b. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 45: 32-54 (page 45, Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera))
- Forel, A. 1891c. Les Formicides. [part]. In: Grandidier, A. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie (28e fascicule). Paris: Hachette et Cie, v + 237 pp. (page 131, pl. 4, fig. 6 worker described)
- Rakotonirina, J.C. & Fisher, B.L. 2013. Revision of the Pachycondyla wasmannii-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Malagasy region. Zootaxa 3609, 101-141.
- Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa. 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1922k. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. IX. A synonymic list of the ants of the Malagasy region. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 4 45: 1005-1055 (see also)