Bothroponera tesseronoda

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Bothroponera tesseronoda
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Bothroponera
Species: B. tesseronoda
Binomial name
Bothroponera tesseronoda
(Emery, 1877)

Bothroponera tesseronoda casent0915675 p 1 high.jpg

Bothroponera tesseronoda casent0915675 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

At a Glance • Gamergate  



Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Oriental Region: India (type locality), Sri Lanka.

Check distribution from AntMaps.

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Bothroponera tesseronoda for further details


Gamergates are the normal reproductives in this species. Colonies (n = 9) consisted of 102 (± SD 28) workers on average, with one to eight gamergates (inseminated and egg-laying workers) per colony (Ito 2010).



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • tesseronoda. Ponera tesseronoda Emery, 1877b: 368 (w.) INDIA. [Misspelled as tesserinoda by Forel, 1900d: 325; Bingham, 1903: 97, and subsequent authors.] Forel, 1900d: 352 (m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1976a: 46 (l.). Combination in Bothroponera: Forel, 1891b: 124; in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera): Emery, 1901a: 46; in Bothroponera: Joma & Mackay, 2013: 2; Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 77. See also: Bingham, 1903: 97; Maschwitz, Hölldobler & Möglich, 1974: 113.



  • Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. (page 97, see also)
  • Emery, C. 1877a. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte prima. Formiche provenienti dal Viaggio dei signori Antinori, Beccari e Issel nel Mar Rosso e nel paese dei Bogos. [part]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 9: 363-368 (page 368, worker described)
  • Emery, C. 1901b. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 45: 32-54 (page 46, Combination in Pachycondyla (Bothroponera))
  • Forel, A. 1891c. Les Formicides. [part]. In: Grandidier, A. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie (28e fascicule). Paris: Hachette et Cie, v + 237 pp. (page 124, Combination in Bothroponera)
  • Forel, A. 1900d. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part VI. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 52-65 (page 352?, male described)
  • Ito, F. 2010. Gamergate reproduction without queens in the ponerine ant Pachycondyla (=Bothroponera) tesseronoda (Emery, 1877) in southern India (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Asian Myrmecology, 3, 39–44. PDF
  • Maschwitz, U.; Hölldobler, B.; Möglich, M. 1974. Tandemlaufen als Rekrutierungsverhalten bei Bothroponera tesserinoda Forel (Formicidae: Ponerinae). Z. Tierpsychol. 35: 113-123 (page 113, see also)
  • Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa. 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976a. Supplementary studies on ant larvae: Ponerinae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 102: 41-64 (page 46, larva described)