| Camponotus chloroticus|
Clouse et al. (2016) - Camponotus chloroticus was originally described by Emery (1897) as a subspecies of Camponotus maculatus, as follows: "I bought from Godeffroy Museum [Hamburg, 1861 - 1885] specimens of this form from the Tonga Islands and New Britain, under the name Camponotus pallidus. … For the shape of the various parts of the body, for the pubescence, the very weak sculpture and the hairs, it is very close to the Camponotus kubaryi, particularly the oceanic specimens and those from New Guinea. … Maximum size is 8 mm; reddish-yellow, dirt-like color; head darker and more red, abdomenmore or less blackish in its rear."
We do not know which aspects of the pilosity Emery noticed as being similar to that of Camponotus kubaryi, but the presence of standing hairs on the proximal hind femur and on the propleuron in both species is one of the few readily discernable synapomorphies of an important clade of Camponotus in the Pacific and one of the key characters used to distinguish C. chloroticus from Camponotus micronesicus. Using this pilosity character, overall similarity in size, shape, and coloration, as well as our finding of only one such yellow Camponotus species in the same islands, we confirm here that the Tongan Syntypes of C. chloroticus match the species in a clade that extends from New Guinea to Polynesia.
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The phylogeography of a group of Pacific Island Camponotus species, which included a number of species groups, was broadly examined by Clouse et al. (2015). They found Camponotus chloroticus is a member of a clade (Clade IV) that tenuously appears to have originated in the Australian wet tropics but has undoubtedly spread and speciated across the Pacific Islands.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- chloroticus. Camponotus maculatus subsp. chloroticus Emery, 1897d: 574 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Emery, 1914f: 424 (m.). Combination in C. (Myrmoturba): Emery, 1914f: 424; in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 94. Subspecies of irritans: Emery, 1920c: 7; Karavaiev, 1933a: 316. Raised to species, senior synonym of chlorogaster, sanctaecrucis and material of the unavailable name samoaensis referred here: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 93.
- sanctaecrucis. Camponotus (Myrmoturba) maculatus subsp. sanctaecrucis Mann, 1919: 369, fig. 42 (s.) SOLOMON IS. Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 94. Subspecies of irritans: Emery, 1920c: 7. Junior synonym of chloroticus: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 93.
- chlorogaster. Camponotus (Myrmoturba) irritans subsp. chlorogaster Emery, 1920c: 7 (s.w.) VANUATU. [First available use of Camponotus (Myrmoturba) maculatus subsp. chlorotica var. chlorogaster Emery, 1914f: 429; unavailable name.] Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 94. Junior synonym of chloroticus: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 93.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Clouse et al. (2016) - Majors: EL 0.48 (range 0.40 - 0.51), EW 0.36 (0.25 - 0.40), FCL 1.14 (1.00 - 1.31), HL 2.22 (1.85 - 2.40), HW 2.00 (1.45 - 2.25), ML 2.69 (2.38 - 2.85), MTL 1.68 (1.44 - 2.10), PH 0.74 (0.59 - 0.81), PL 0.58 (0.43 - 0.75), SL 1.65 (1.44 - 1.85); CI 90 (78 - 95), SI 83 (73 - 124). Mesosoma light yellow, gaster same color as mesosoma or slightly darker, head color usually darker than mesosoma; head tapering, vertex usually slightly concave; hind femur and propleuron with standing hairs. Minors: EL 0.42 (0.38 - 0.55), EW 0.33 (0.30 - 0.40), FCL 1.04 (0.90 - 1.40), HL 1.66 (1.55 - 2.10), HW 1.28 (1.18 - 1.60), ML 2.39 (2.20 - 3.05), MTL 1.58 (1.31 - 1.95), PH 0.62 (0.50 - 0.75), PL 0.57 (0.50 - 0.70), SL 1.80 (1.45 - 2.45); CI 77 (74 - 82), SI 142 (123 - 154). Mesosoma usually light yellow, gaster and head usually same color as mesosoma or slightly darker; head tapering, vertex convex and occipital carina present; hind femur and propleuron with standing hairs.
Clouse et al. (2016) - The Camponotus chloroticus syntype from Irupara, New Guinea, is not as clearly aligned with the Tongan syntypes or modern specimens from the Polynesian, Fijian, and Melanesian clade, partially due to its mounting, which limits our view of the important pilosity characters. However, the New Guinean syntype has distinctly shorter scapes than almost all C. micronesicus specimens measured, measuring just at the lower limit of the range, and producing a scape index for the New Guinea syntype that is smaller than all C. micronesicus specimens measured but within the range for C. chloroticus. The petiole length of the New Guinean syntype is also similar to that of C. chloroticus specimens, and altogether we have more support for it being C. chloroticus than C. micronesicus. Other options for the identity of the New Guinean syntype include an undescribed from, or, if it is truly missing the hind femur and propleuron standing hairs, an oddly concolorous Camponotus humilior (which tends to be bicolorous); Camponotus novaehollandiae is too large, also usually bicolorous, and, from our PCA analysis, slightly different in shape
- Camponotus maculatus chlorotica Emery, 1897: Syntype, worker(s), Irupara, Papua New Guinea.
- Clouse, R.M., Blanchard, B.D., Gibson, R., Wheeler, W.C. & Janda, M. 2016. Taxonomic updates for some confusing Micronesian species of Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Myrmecological News. 23:139-152.
- Clouse, R. M., M. Janda, B. Blanchard, P. Sharma, B. D. Hoffmann, A. N. Andersen, J. E. Czekanski-Moir, P. Krushelnycky, C. Rabeling, E. O. Wilson, E. P. Economo, E. M. Sarnat, D. M. General, G. D. Alpert, and W. C. Wheeler. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Indo-Pacific carpenter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus) reveals waves of dispersal and colonization from diverse source areas. Cladistics. 31:424-437. doi:10.1111/cla.12099
- Emery, C. 1897d. Viaggio di Lamberto Loria nella Papuasia orientale. XVIII. Formiche raccolte nella Nuova Guinea dal Dott. Lamberto Loria. [part]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 38[=(2(18): 546-576 (page 574, worker described)
- Emery, C. 1914f. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. Nova Caled. A Zool. 1: 393-437 (page 424, male described, combination in C. (Myrmoturba))
- Emery, C. 1920d. Studi sui Camponotus. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 52: 3-48 (page 7, subspecies of irritans)
- Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 94, combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex))
- Karavaiev, V. 1933a . Ameisen aus dem Indo-Australischen Gebiet, VII. Konowia 11: 305-320 (page 316, subspecies of irritans)
- Wilson, E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967b. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pac. Insects Monogr. 14: 1-109 (page 93, Raised to species, senior synonym of chlorogaster and sanctaecrucis, and material of the unavailable name samoensis referred here.)