| Cardiocondyla longinoda|
Nothing is known about the biology of Cardiocondyla longinoda.
A distinctive taxon, easily recognisable by its slenderness, elongate and relatively low petiolar node and shagreened gaster. The latter recalls Cardiocondyla luciae, but in other respects these ants are distinct. (Rigato 2002)
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Little is known about Cardiocondyla longinoda. Until further studies reveal more about this species we can infer that its natural history and biology is likely similar to other members of the genus. Seifert revised the holarctic species of Cardiocondyla in 2003 and the following synopsis is based on his excellent treatment of the genus. References to other publications and more details about what is reported here can be found in Seifert (2003).
Many Cardiocondyla species inhabit areas that experience frequent disturbance and/or are quite open. These may be human altered areas, where a number of Cardiocondyla tramp species thrive, but also natural areas such as semi deserts and steppes, immature soils at rivers, lakes, and sea shores and to a lesser extent forest margins or burned-down woodland patches. In contrast to this open-land group, the natural habitat affinities of many tropical species are primary rain forests.
Nests are typically in soil and sometimes under stones. Two species are known to nest in vegetation but this is unusual for the genus. The single nest entrances is small (1-1.5 mm) and inconspicuous. In the desert nests can be relatively deep (> 1m) and have many chambers but in areas where conditions are less extreme there is generally a single chamber (15-20 mm diameter and 3-4 mm height) that is not far below the ground surface (2-15 cm).
Cardiocondyla tramp species (Cardiocondyla wroughtonii, Cardiocondyla obscurior, Cardiocondyla mauritanica, Cardiocondyla emeryi and Cardiocondyla minutior) are known to be polygynous, as are some less widespread species, while other species are known to be monogynous.
Cardiocondyla ants are omnivorous. Zoophagy (zoo necrophagy and killing of small weakly sclerotised arthropods), granivory, and nectarivory have also been noted. Tandem running has been observed as a method of recruitment to food sources in a few species.
Intranidal mating appears to be the norm for most species in the genus. Mating strategies are species dependent and may take various forms. Winged males may mate within their nest or fly to and enter other colonies to mate. Queen mate intranidally and fly from their nest to begin a new colony, become integrated into their natal colony, or may walk away from their nest and establish a new colony nearby.
Cardiocondyla are unusual in having peculiar male forms. Male polymorphism is found in some species with typical males and an ergatoid form. These latter males are wingless and worker like in appearance. Ergatoid males fight with other males within their natal nest. By killing potential rival males, a dominant male can monopolize matings with the virgin queens in their colony. Morphological modifications that enhance the fighting abilities of ergatoid males have been documented, e.g., modified mandibles well suited to fighting and increased mesosomal size for better protection against attacks from rivals. Another unusual characteristic of ergatoid males is the continuation of spermatogenesis throughout their adult life. Males of most aculeate hymenoptera stop producing sperm once they are fully mature.
Some species are known to produce different queen morphs. This presumably facilitates there being a longer range dispersal queen form and a shorter or non-dispersing form. Gyne polymorphism appears to be an adaptation for species inhabiting continental desert or semi-desert habitats. The cosmopolitan tramp species, on the other hand, do not exhibit this gyne polymorphism.
Known only from the worker caste.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- longinoda. Cardiocondyla longinoda Rigato, 2002: 167, figs. 1-3 (w.) TANZANIA.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Holotype. TL 2.1, HL 0.49, HW 0.39, CI 80, SL 0.38, SI 97, PW 0.28, AL 0.60.
A slender and pale species with long appendages. In full face view head relatively elongate with a hardly concave occipital margin and anterior clypeal lobe with an almost straight anterior edge. Maximum eye diameter 0.13 mm (14 ommatidia in the longest row). With the alitrunk in profile, the promesonotum forming a low convexity a little above the level of the propodeal dorsum; metanotal groove shallow. Pronotum seen from above with rounded humeri. Propodeum armed with two blunt and poorly developed teeth, which seen from above appear as close and stubby tubercles. Petiole with a long low node, in dorsal view is about 1.5 times longer than wide; in posterior view the node is convex. Subpetiolar process barely discernable. Postpetiole seen from above about as long as wide, clearly narrower in front than behind and a little more than 1.5 times wider than the petiole.
Mandibles shagreened and feebly longitudinally striolated, matt. Dorsum of head shagreened and finely blanketed with shallow and regular pubescence-bearing punctures. Promesonotal dorsum with a similar sculpture, but the punctures are poorly visible. Propodeum and sides of the alitrunk finely reticulate-punctate. Petiolar node and dorsum of the postpetiole finely shagreened; sides and peduncle of the petiole finely reticulate punctate. Dorsum of the gaster finely shagreened and matt with a silky appearance.
Hairs present only on the anterior border of the clypeal lobe and at the tip of the gaster. Appressed pubescence well developed especially on the head and gaster. Pubescent hairs on gaster distant from one another by about as much as their length or slightly less.
Colour testaceous yellow, with a slightly duller gaster.
Paratypes. TL 2.0, HL 0.48-0.49, HW 0.37-0.38, CI 77-78, SL 0.36-0.37, SI 95-100, PW 0.26-0.27, AL 0.57-0.59 (4 measured).
Holotype worker: TANZANIA: Kibaha, 7-vi-1988 (A.M. Varela) The Natural History Museum.
Paratypes: 2 workers with the same data as the holotype BMNH. 1 worker: TANZANIA, Mkomazi Game Reserve, near Junction 9, 3°53'S 38°02'E, 8-v-1996 (H.G. Robertson) (SAM-HYM-C009896) South African Museum. 1 worker: TANZANIA, Mkomazi Game Reserve, Pangaro plot, 3°54'S 37°47'E, 23-iv-1996 (H.G. Robertson) (SAM-HYM-C010399) SAMC.
An adjective formed by two latin words, "longus" (long) and "nodus" (knot or node), given to this species for the peculiar shape of the petiolar node.