| Cardiocondyla monardi|
Nothing is known about the biology of Cardiocondyla monardi.
This very distinctive species should not be confused with any other African form. It is quickly separated from all its congeners in the Afrotropical region by its long scapes, lack of a metanotal groove or impression, absolutely unarmed propodeum, elongate pedicel segments and glinting silvery pubescence on a yellow background. (Bolton 1982)
Keys including this Species
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Little is known about Cardiocondyla monardi. Until further studies reveal more about this species we can infer that its natural history and biology is likely similar to other members of the genus. Seifert revised the holarctic species of Cardiocondyla in 2003 and the following synopsis is based on his excellent treatment of the genus. References to other publications and more details about what is reported here can be found in Seifert (2003).
Many Cardiocondyla species inhabit areas that experience frequent disturbance and/or are quite open. These may be human altered areas, where a number of Cardiocondyla tramp species thrive, but also natural areas such as semi deserts and steppes, immature soils at rivers, lakes, and sea shores and to a lesser extent forest margins or burned-down woodland patches. In contrast to this open-land group, the natural habitat affinities of many tropical species are primary rain forests.
Nests are typically in soil and sometimes under stones. Two species are known to nest in vegetation but this is unusual for the genus. The single nest entrances is small (1-1.5 mm) and inconspicuous. In the desert nests can be relatively deep (> 1m) and have many chambers but in areas where conditions are less extreme there is generally a single chamber (15-20 mm diameter and 3-4 mm height) that is not far below the ground surface (2-15 cm).
Cardiocondyla tramp species (Cardiocondyla wroughtonii, Cardiocondyla obscurior, Cardiocondyla mauritanica, Cardiocondyla emeryi and Cardiocondyla minutior) are known to be polygynous, as are some less widespread species, while other species are known to be monogynous.
Cardiocondyla ants are omnivorous. Zoophagy (zoo necrophagy and killing of small weakly sclerotised arthropods), granivory, and nectarivory have also been noted. Tandem running has been observed as a method of recruitment to food sources in a few species.
Intranidal mating appears to be the norm for most species in the genus. Mating strategies are species dependent and may take various forms. Winged males may mate within their nest or fly to and enter other colonies to mate. Queen mate intranidally and fly from their nest to begin a new colony, become integrated into their natal colony, or may walk away from their nest and establish a new colony nearby.
Cardiocondyla are unusual in having peculiar male forms. Male polymorphism is found in some species with typical males and an ergatoid form. These latter males are wingless and worker like in appearance. Ergatoid males fight with other males within their natal nest. By killing potential rival males, a dominant male can monopolize matings with the virgin queens in their colony. Morphological modifications that enhance the fighting abilities of ergatoid males have been documented, e.g., modified mandibles well suited to fighting and increased mesosomal size for better protection against attacks from rivals. Another unusual characteristic of ergatoid males is the continuation of spermatogenesis throughout their adult life. Males of most aculeate hymenoptera stop producing sperm once they are fully mature.
Some species are known to produce different queen morphs. This presumably facilitates there being a longer range dispersal queen form and a shorter or non-dispersing form. Gyne polymorphism appears to be an adaptation for species inhabiting continental desert or semi-desert habitats. The cosmopolitan tramp species, on the other hand, do not exhibit this gyne polymorphism.
Only known from the worker caste.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- monardi. Cardiocondyla (Loncyda) monardi Santschi, 1930b: 70, fig. 5 (w.) ANGOLA. See also: Bolton, 1982: 314.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Bolton (1982) - TL 2.7, HL 0.58, HW 0.46, CI 79, SL 0.49, SI 107, PW 0.33, AL 0.68.
Antennal scapes relatively long, SI > 100; when laid back on the head exceeding the occipital corners. Maximum diameter of eye 0.14, about 0.30 x HW and with approximately 14 ommatidia in the longest row. Pronotal corners in dorsal view broadly and evenly rounded. Alitrunk in profile with the dorsum forming a single uninterrupted surface, without trace of a metanotal groove or impression. Propodeum unarmed, the dorsum rounding broadly, smoothly and evenly into the declivity. Petiole in profile with a very long anterior peduncle and a long low feebly convex node. Petiole node in dorsal view subglobular, only very slightly longer than broad. Postpetiole in dorsal view somewhat longer than broad, narrow (c. 0.13) at its junction with the petiole, then rapidly broadening posteriorly to a maximum width of c. 0.26 at about its midlength, and behind this narrowing again to a posteriormost width of c. 0.20. Dorsal length of post petiole about 0.30, of petiole peduncle plus node about 0.40. All dorsal surfaces of head, alitrunk, petiole, postpetiole and first gastral tergite reticulate-punctate. Whole of body dorsally with glinting silvery pubescence which is mostly set within the punctures. Colour yellow with glinting silvery highlights due to the pubescence.
Angola: Rio Mbale (A. Manard).
- Bolton, B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmecine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissotarsus, Messor and Cataulacus (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology, 46: 307-370 (page 314, see also)
- Santschi, F. 1930b. Résultats de la Mission scientifique suisse en Angola, 1928-1929. Formicides de l'Angola. Rev. Suisse Zool. 37: 53-81 (page 70, fig. 5 worker described)