Cardiocondyla obscurior

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Cardiocondyla obscurior
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Cardiocondyla
Species: C. obscurior
Binomial name
Cardiocondyla obscurior
Wheeler, W.M., 1929

Cardiocondyla obscurior casent0060052 profile 1.jpg

Cardiocondyla obscurior casent0060052 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

Seifert (2003) - C. obscurior was reported to nest in cavities of bushes and trees 2 - 5 m above the ground level; it was found in dead twigs of trees such as Erythrina variegata (Okinawa), in dwarf coconuts (Brazil), galls of Acacia trees (Brazil), in a dead twig on a tree (Florida), on a Ficus tree (Israel), in the gall of a Tamarix bush (Israel), and in the cavity of a coconut high in the tree (Zanzibar).

Identification

Seifert (2003) - A member of the Cardiocondyla wroughtonii group. The workers of C. obscurior differ from Cardiocondyla wroughtonii by darker gaster pigmentation, shorter head, smaller postocular distance, narrower frons, wider and higher waist segments, wider spine base distance, and shorter spine length.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Comoros.
Indo-Australian Region: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Micronesia (Federated States of), New Guinea, Northern Mariana Islands.
Nearctic Region: United States.
Neotropical Region: Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Mexico.
Oriental Region: Taiwan (type locality).
Palaearctic Region: Canary Islands, Israel.
Cardiocondyla obscurior Distribution.png

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Cardiocondyla obscurior for further details

Biology

Seifert (2003) - C. obscurior produce alate and ergatoid males (Yamauchi in lit. 3 July 2000, my own material). Average differences in chromosome numbers seem to exist but the numbers are not constant. C. wroughtonii from the Okinawa Islands had 2n = 56 chromosomes while sympatric C. obscurior had 2 n = 52 chromosomes (Yamauchi in lit., 3 July 2000). A C. obscurior sample from Gainesville/Florida had 2n = 48 (Francoeur in lit., 19 October 2000). Colonies may have more than one queen. New nests can be formed by fission.

Castes

Worker

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • obscurior. Cardiocondyla wroughtoni var. obscurior Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 44 (w.q.) TAIWAN. Raised to species and senior synonym of bicolor: Seifert, 2003a: 271.
  • bicolor. Cardiocondyla bicolor Donisthorpe, 1930b: 366 (w.) ISRAEL. Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Kugler, J. 1984: 6; of obscurior: Seifert, 2003a: 271.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Characterized by its dark color, the body and appendages being dull brown, the legs scarcely paler, the antennal clubs distinctly infuscated, the Whole gaster dark brown, except the posterior borders of the segments, which are paler.

Seifert (2003) - Small size CL 428. Head very short, CL/CW 1.108. Scape short, SL/CS 0.780. Postocular index rather large, PoOc/CL 0.435. Eyes medium-sized, EYE 0.232. Frons wide, FRS/CS 0.270, frontal carinae immediately behind FRS level parallel or slightly diverging. Anterior clypeal margin between level of frontal carinae frequently slightly notched; median occipital margin usually slightly concave; overall head shape posterior of eyes less rounded than in Cardiocondyla wroughtonii. Whole head and mesosoma without any notable rugosity. Paramedian and lateral areas of vertex with deep (sometimes shallower) foveolae of 17 - 21 mm diameter, frequently in dense honey-comb like arrangement, usually showing an inner corona of 9 mm diameter; median vertex weakly foveolate-carinulate. Whole surface of mesosoma and waist densely foveolate-reticulate, the meshes with lower diameters than ort vertex. Metanotal groove in lateral view usually with rather steep anterior and posterior slopes, occasionally shallower than in C. wroughtonii. Propodeal spines long, shorter than in C. wroughtonii, SP/CS 0.178; outer spine base distance wider than in C. wroughtonii, SPBA/CS 0.293. Petiolar peduncle in lateral aspect deviating 30° from longitudinal axis of petiole node that is often more square-shaped than in C. wroughtonii. Postpetiole as a rule more massive than in C. wroughtonii, as in this species with characteristic anteroventrolateral corners; in dorsal view, convex sides meeting concave anterior margin in distinct angle. Head, mesosoma, and waist brightly yellowish or yellowish brown, antennal club usually notably infuscated. In contrast to dark morph of C. wroughtonii, all gaster segments dark blackish brown, PigG1 98 ± 4 %.

Queen

The single specimen of this sex is dealated and headless and is perhaps immature, the body is paler and more yellowish than in the worker, except the tegulae, which are black and the gaster, which is dark brown throughout, with paler posterior borders to the segments.

Seifert (2003) - Very small size, CS 460. Head very short, CL/CW 1.122. Postocular index shorter than in Cardiocondyla wroughtonii, PoOclCL 0.423. Scape rather short, SL/CS 0.755. Median occipital margin and anterior clypeal margin between level of frontal carinae straight or slightly concave. Frontal carinae immediately caudal of FRS level diverging or subparallel. With exception of 4 - 5 longitudinal rugae on metapleuron, whole head and mesosoma without any rugosity. Paramedian area of vertex with deep, densely arranged foveolae of 18 - 22 mm diameter, showing inner coronae of 9 mm diameter. Whole surface of mesosoma and waist densely foveolate, foveolae on dorsal mesosoma similar to those on vertex, those on lateral area of mesosoma and in particular on waist with significantly lower diameters. Propodeal spines long, but shorter than in C. wroughtonii, SP/CS 0.187, ratio SPBA/SP 1.942 ± 0.138 (n = 8). Postpetiole with sharp anteroventrolateral corners; in dorsal view, its convex sides meet the concave anterior margin in a distinct corner. Head, mesosoma, and waist yellowish, small patches at wing insertions notably darker; antennal club frequently infuscate; all gaster segments on whole surface brown to dark blackish brown.

Type Material

One worker and one female from Eisei, Formosa.

Seifert (2003) - Three investigated gynes from the Museum of Comparative Zoology collection, labelled by Wheeler “Kagi, Formosa 11.1.1927 R.Takahashi Wm. M. Wheeler\ Cotypes\ var. obscurior Wheeler” fully match the conception of C. obscurior presented here but cannot be considered as genuine type material. These gynes were the basis of a second description, published on 7 March 1 930 (Wheeler 1930). Wheeler's first description, published on 22 October 1929, was based upon one worker and a headless dealate queen collected at Eisei / Formosa (Wheeler 1929). These specimens were not available from MCZ Cambridge and are believed to be lost.

References

  • Cremer, S.; Heinze, J. 2003. Stress grows wings: environmental induction of winged dispersal males in Cardiocondyla ants. Curr. Biol. 13: 219-223 (page 219, see also)
  • Du, Y., Schrempf, A. & Heinze, J. 2007. Environmental determination of the male morph in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 104: 243–246.
  • Seifert, B. 2003a. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Ann. (page 271, Raised to species and senior synonym of bicolor)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1929h. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Formosa, the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agrar. R. Sc. Super. Agric. 24: 27-64 (page 44, worker, queen described)