Cardiocondyla wroughtonii

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Cardiocondyla wroughtonii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Cardiocondyla
Species: C. wroughtonii
Binomial name
Cardiocondyla wroughtonii
(Forel, 1890)

Cardiocondyla wroughtonii casent0102969 profile 1.jpg

Cardiocondyla wroughtonii casent0102969 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

A tramp species probably originating in South East Asia, C. wroughtonii is now widespread in the tropics and subtropics.

At a Glance • Polygynous  
 

Identification

A member of the Cardiocondyla wroughtonii group.

Amongst the Afrotropical region species wroughtonii is recognizable by its small size, relatively short scapes and broad head, subglobular petiole node in dorsal view, and the characteristic shape of the promesonotum in profile. In terms of CI it is approached only by Cardiocondyla sekhemka, but this species is uniformly dark in colour, has much shorter scapes (SI 74), and has a differently shaped mesosoma. (Bolton 1982)

Keys including this Species

Distribution

In Florida this is a relatively uncommon species found as far north and west as Okaloosa County. Nests are usually in hollow stems of dead woody herbs or grass culms, often at the edge of wet areas or in marshes. Pest status: none. First published Florida record: Wheeler 1932 (Deyrup, Davis & Cover, 2000.)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Kenya, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Republic of Tanzania.
Australasian Region: Australia, New Caledonia.
Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Hawaii, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines.
Malagasy Region: Mayotte.
Nearctic Region: United States.
Neotropical Region: Cuba, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mexico.
Oriental Region: Cambodia, India (type locality), Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China, Israel, Japan.
Cardiocondyla wroughtonii Distribution.png

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Cardiocondyla wroughtonii for further details

Biology

Seifert (2003) - C. wroughtonii is reported to nest near to or on the ground; it was found in hollow stems of dead Eulalia grasses (Okinawa), in a dead twig on the ground (New Orleans/USA), between layers of Eugenia jambolana leaves (India), in litter (Sulawesi), and “under leaves in a silk patch” (Tanzania).

Colonies contain less then 500 workers and may have more than one queen. New nests can be formed by fission.

Castes

Queen

Ergatoid Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • wroughtonii. Emeryia wroughtonii Forel, 1890b: cxi (ergatoid m., not w.) INDIA. Forel, 1903a: 689 (w.q.); Borgmeier, 1937a: 129 (ergatoid m.); Kugler, J. 1984: 7 (m., ergatoid m.). Combination in Cardiocondyla: Forel, 1892h: 461; Forel, 1892i: 313. Senior synonym of hawaiensis: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 56; of bimaculata: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1376; of chlorotica: Bolton, 1982: 317; of longispina, quadraticeps, yamauchii: Seifert, 2003a: 269.
  • hawaiensis. Cardiocondyla wroughtonii var. hawaiensis Forel, 1899a: 119 (w.) HAWAII. Forel, 1902h: 440 (q.); Santschi, 1919a: 328 (m.); Smith, M.R. 1944a: 30 (ergatoid m.). Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 56.
  • quadraticeps. Cardiocondyla wroughtonii subsp. quadraticeps Forel, 1912n: 57 (w.) SINGAPORE. Viehmeyer, 1916a: 122 (q.). Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Seifert, 2003a: 269.
  • bimaculata. Cardiocondyla wroughtoni var. bimaculata Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 43 (w.q.) TAIWAN. Subspecies of wroughtonii: Smith, M.R. 1944a: 40; Creighton, 1950a: 199. Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1376.
  • chlorotica. Cardiocondyla emeryi subsp. chlorotica Menozzi, 1930b: 84 (w.q.) SOMALIA. Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Bolton, 1982: 317.
  • longispina. Cardiocondyla longispina Karavaiev, 1935a: 88, fig. 14 (w.) INDONESIA (Java). Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Seifert, 2003a: 269.
  • yamauchii. Cardiocondyla yamauchii Terayama, 1999d: 104, figs. 14-19 (w.q.m. ergatoid m.) JAPAN. Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Seifert, 2003a: 269.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Type Material

Description

Worker

Bolton (1982) - TL 1.6-1.9, HL 0.42-0.50, HW 0.34-0.40, CI 79-86, SL 0.30-0.36, SI 81-89, PW 0.24-0.28, AL 0.46--0.55 (25 measured).

Small species with relatively broad head and short scapes, CI and SI above. When laid back on the head the scapes failing to reach the occipital corners in full-face view. Maximum diameter of eye 0.09-0.11, about 0.26-0.30 x HW and with 9-11 ommatidia in the longest row. Pronotal corners rounded in dorsal view. With the alitrunk in profile the promesonotum forming a shallow convexity from front to back but the slope changing sharply posteriorly and becoming quite steep where it slopes down to the strongly impressed metanotal groove; this change in slope very conspicuous in absolute profile. Propodeal dorsum behind the metanotal groove convex in profile, then entering a long downward slope to the propodeal spines. Propodeal spines enlongate and narrow in profile, longer than their basal width; in dorsal view each spine as long as the distance separating their bases. Petiole node in dorsal view subglobular, as broad as or slightly broader than long. Postpetiole distinctly broader than long. Dorsal surfaces of head and alitrunk blanketed by fine shagreening or punctulate shagreening. Petiole and postpetiole finely superficially shagreened. Hairs absent except on mouthparts and gastral apex but a sparse appressed pubescence is present, easiest seen on the first gastral tergite. Head, alitrunk and appendages yellow to yellowish brown, colour of gaster variable. Frequently the gaster is the same colour as the head and alitrunk but in some the sides of the tergite are darker than the dorsum. In others the darker colour has also extended across the posterior portion of the first tergite and in some the gaster is uniformly dark.

References

  • Bolton, B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmecine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissotarsus, Messor and Cataulacus (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology, 46: 307-370 (page 317, Senior synonym of chlorotica)
  • Borgmeier, T. 1937a. Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel no Brasil, e a descoberta do macho ergatoide desta especie (Hym. Formicidae). Rev. Entomol. (Rio J.) 7: 129-134 (page 129, ergatoid male described)
  • Deyrup, M., Davis, L. & Cover, S. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126, 293-325.
  • Forel, A. 1890c. Aenictus-Typhlatta découverte de M. Wroughton. Nouveaux genres de Formicides. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 34:cii-cxiv. (page cxi, ergatoid male described)
  • Forel, A. 1892h. Le mâle des Cardicondyla [sic] et la reproduction consanguine perpétuée. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 36: 458-461 (page 461, Combination in Cardiocondyla)
  • Forel, A. 1892o. Les Formicides. [concl.]. In: Grandidier, A. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie. Supplèment au 28e fascicule. Paris: Hachette et Cie, pp. 229-280. (page 313, Combination in Cardiocondyla)
  • Forel, A. 1903a. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part X. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 679-715 (page 689, worker, queen described)
  • Kugler, J. 1984 [1983]. The males of Cardiocondyla Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the description of the winged male of Cardiocondyla wroughtoni (Forel). Isr. J. Entomol. 17: 1-21 (page 7, male, ergatoid male described; page 6, Senior synonym of bicolor)
  • Seifert, B. 2003. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B Botanik und Zoologie. 104:203-338. PDF (page 269, Senior synonym of quadraticeps and yamauchii)
  • Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Pr (page 1376, Senior synonym of bimaculata)
  • Wilson, E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967b. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pac. Insects Monogr. 14: 1-109 (page 56, Senior synonym of hawaiensis)