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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Tribe: Bothriomyrmecini
Genus: Chronoxenus
Santschi, 1919
Type species
Bothriomyrmex myops, now Chronoxenus myops
9 species
(Species Checklist)

Chronoxenus myops casent0103286 p 1 high.jpg

Chronoxenus myops casent0103286 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Evolutionary Relationships

  (6 genera)


  (1 species)

  (1 species)

  (4 species)

  (29 species)

  (9 species)

  (1 genus)

  (16 genera)

Based on Ward et al. 2010.



World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Chronoxenus Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Chronoxenus Species Richness.png

Check distribution from AntMaps.

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Check specimen data from AntWeb




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • CHRONOXENUS [Dolichoderinae: Bothriomyrmecini]
    • Chronoxenus Santschi, 1919i: 202 [as subgenus of Bothriomyrmex]. Type-species: Bothriomyrmex myops, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1944e: 102.
    • Chronoxenus junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex: Shattuck, 1992c: 54.
    • Chronoxenus revived from synonymy and raised to genus: Dubovikov, 2005a: 92.

Taxonomic history

  • Chronoxenus in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 690; all subsequent authors to the following.
  • Chronoxenus in Dolichoderini, Iridomyrmecini, Bothriomyrmecina: Dubovikov, 2005a: 92.
  • Chronoxenus in Dolichoderinae, Bothriomyrmecini: Ward, Brady, et al. 2010: 361.
  • Chronoxenus as subgenus of Bothriomyrmex: Santschi, 1919i: 202; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 690.
  • Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex: Brown, 1973b: 179 [provisional]; Shattuck, 1992c: 54; Bolton, 1994: 26; Shattuck, 1994: 31; Bolton, 1995b: 24; Bolton, 2003: 84.
  • Chronoxenus as genus: Dubovikov, 2005a: 92.


  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 26, Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 84, Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Wash (page 179, Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex [provisional])
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1944e. A new species of Bothriomyrmex Emery (Hym. Formicidae), and some notes on the genus. Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 13: 100-103 (page 102, Chronoxenus type-species: Bothriomyrmex myops, by subsequent designation)
  • Dubovikoff, D.A. 2005. The system of taxon Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869 sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and relatives genera. Kavkazskii Entomologicheskii Byulleten 1(1): 89-94 (page 92, Combination in Iridomyrmecini;Chronoxenus revived from synonymy and raised to genus)
  • Santschi, F. 1919i. Fourmis du genre Bothriomyrmex Emery. (Systématique et moeurs.). Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 7: 201-224 (page 202, Chronoxenus as subgenus of Bothriomyrmex)
  • Shattuck, S. O. 1992c. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 21: 1-181 (page 54, Chronoxenus as junior synonym of Bothriomyrmex)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 690, Chronoxenus as subgenus of Bothriomyrmex)