Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis

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Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dorylinae
Tribe: Cylindromyrmecini
Genus: Cylindromyrmex
Species: C. brasiliensis
Binomial name
Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis
Emery, 1901

Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis casent0173502 profile 1.jpg

Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis casent0173502 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

De Andrade (1998) - Mayr (1887) reported specimen of “striatus”collected by Hetschko in Brazil in termite galleries. Borgmeier (1937) cited specimens of brasiliensis collected by P. Rambo from Pareci Novo (Brazil) in a branch of Erythroxylum obovatum (Erythro-xylaceae).

Identification

De Andrade (1998) - The basalmost species of the striatus clade and differing from both other species, Cylindromyrmex striatus and Cylindromyrmex whymperi, by the legs dark orange or light brown instead of black with at least part of the tibiae yellowish.

The worker and the gynes of brasiliensis possess on the mesosoma, on the petiole and on the postpetiole, striae thinner and less regular than striatus and whymperi. These three species are very similar to each other but the character already given in the diagnosis should be sufficient to clearly allow separation of brasiliensis from the other two.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Brazil (type locality), Paraguay, Venezuela.

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis for further details

Biology

Tomotake & Caetano (1997) described the digestive tract of Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis and compare it with Acanthostichus serratulus.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • brasiliensis. Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis Emery, 1901a: 53 (w.m.) BRAZIL. Borgmeier, 1937b: 218 (q.). See also: De Andrade, 1998a: 589.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

De Andrade (1998):

Worker

TL 5.56-8.48; HL 1.16-1.64; HW 0.93-1.32; EL 0.37-0.49; SL 0.51-0.73; SW 0.17-0.22; WL 1.40-2.20; PeL 0.55-0.96; PeW 0.51-0.84; HFeL 0.67-1.02; HFeW 0.25-0.34; HTiL 0.65-1.04; HTiW 0.19-0.26; HBaL 0.53-0.83; HBaW 0.09-0.12; CI 78.1-80.5; SI 30.7-34.4; HFeI 33.3-37.3; HTiI 25.0-29.2; HBaI 14.4-15.1.

Head about 1/5 longer than broad, with subparallel sides. Occiput low. Vertexal angles round. Frontal carinae about half broad as the maximum head width. Anterior third of the frontal carinae diverging backward, and reaching the middle of the eyes posteriorly. Dorsum of the frontal carinae with an impressed, short, median sulcus anteriorly. Frontal carinae not reaching the anterior border of the clypeus. Compound eyes large, slightly convex and behind the mid line of the head. Ocelli developed. Scapes surpassing the anterior border of the eyes. Proximal fifth of the scapes about 1/2 narrower than the remaining parts. Mandibles weakly convex dorsally. Mandibles laterally angulate at the base. Masticatory margin of the mandibles with a set of 5-6 irregular denticles followed by an apical tooth.

Mesosoma slightly convex dorsally and as long as or slightly longer than the head (mandibles included). Pronotum with parallel sides. Mesonotum narrower than pronotum. Propodeal sides gently convex. Basal face of the propodeum separate from the declivous one by a marked margin superficially interrupted medially.

Petiole sub-cylindrical, slightly longer than broad, anteriorly truncate and dorsally convex. Ventral process of the petiole small and triangular. Postpetiole slightly broader than long. Postpetiolar sides diverging backwards. Postpetiolar sternite anteromedially with a salient triangular “lip” pointed backwards. Postpetiole in dorsal view antero-laterally angulate. Pygidium in side view obliquely truncate. Pygidium in dorsal view with the sides bearing irregularly distributed small denticles followed by a row of larger denticles converging towards a pair of small teeth over the sting.

Legs. Femora and tibiae not inflated. Hind basitarsal long and about 1/5 shorter than the maximum length or the hind tibiae. Outer apical edge of the hind and of the mid basitarsi with 6 or 7 spine-like setae.

Sculpture. Posterior third of the head dorsum and frontal carinae with longitudinal striae, thinner on the anterior half of the frontal carinae: some striae bifurcated. Posterior third of the head dorsum with additional, small, sparse, piligerous foveae. Anterior half of the head dorsum in front of the eyes with striae converging towards the scrobes, these striae thinner than those on the anterior part of the frontal carinae. Ventral part of the head smooth, with sparse piligerous foveae and longitudinal, slightly irregular striae on the antero-lateral half only. Mesosoma longitudinally striate and with sparse, superficial, piligerous foveae. Dorsum of the pronotum with 17-21 triae similar to those on the posterior part of the head dorsum. Pronotal striae prolonging onto the mesonotum and to the propodeum but thinner. Pleurae with thin. longitudinal striae and rare piligerous foveae, the striae absent on the lower propleurae. Lower mesopleurae smooth in small specimens. Piligerous foveae on the meso- and metapleurae denser in large specimens. Petiolar dorsum with 15-17 striae similar 10 those on the pronotum and with piligerous foveae. Petiolar sides minutely and superficially reticulate; their dorsal half with piligerous foveae in some specimens the foveae separated by few, thin, longitudinal striae. Declivous face of the propodeum and anterior face of the petiole minutely and superficially reticulate. Dorsum of the postpetiole with ca. 33-35 striae as those on the mesonotum and propodeum and with few piligerous foveae, more impressed on the anterior third; postpetiolar sternite smooth and with sparse piligerous foveae. First, second, third and fourth gastric tergites and first gastric sternite smooth and with sparse punctuations. Remaining gastric segments superficially reticulate-punctate. Legs with very superficial, minute punctures.

Pilosity. Body with pointed hairs of at least three lengths and distributed as follows: (1) one long, erect to suberect on the external border of the scape, a pair between the frontal carinae and clypeus, sparse on the external border of the mandibles, one close to each pronotal angle, two or three on the postpetiole, sparse on the gaster, and denser on the pygidium; (2) shorter than type (1), variably distributed on the whole body; (3) shorter than type (2). suberect or subdecumbent on the head dorsum, subdecumbent on the mesosoma, on the petiole and on the postpetiole, decumbent on the ventral part of the head, on the gaster and on the legs. In addition, the hypostomal bridge surrounded by a row of hairs similar to those of type (1) but appressed and apically curved. Outer ventral border of the mandible with hairs similar to those of the hypostomal bridge but shorter.

Colour black and shining. Mandible castaneous red. Antennae and tarsi ferrugineous- brown. Legs dark orange or light brown.

Queen

TL 8.56; HL 1.44; HW 1.14; EL 0.45; SL 0.60; SW 0.19; WL 2.40; PeL 0.81; PeW 0.77; HFeL 0.77; HFeW 0.30; HTiL 0.75; HTiW 0.22; HBaL 0.61; HBaW 0.10; CI 79.2; SI 31.7; HFeI 39.0; HTiL 29.3; HBaI 16.4.

Similar to the worker, but differing from it in the following details: head with parallel sides: ocelli larger; mesosoma broader; parapsidal furrows impressed; regular; piligerous foveae on the vertexal angles and on the ventral part of the head denser and deeper; pronotum with longitudinal striae as in the worker; one specimen has the pronotal striae irregular and separated by piligerous foveae; mesonotum medially with irregular, short striae and few piligerous foveae; sides of mesonotum smooth; scutellum with sculpture similar to the one on the mesonotum: pro- and mesopleurae almost completely smooth; petiolar dorsum with 10 longitudinal, irregular striae.

Male

TL 8.78; HL 1.16; HW 1.16; EL 0.59; SL 0.32; SW 0.17; WL 2.76; PeL 0.81; PeW 0.72; HFeL 1.00; HFeW 0.23; HTiL 0.88; HTiW 0.18; HBaL 0.77; HBaW 0.07; CI 100.0: SI 53.1; HFeI 23.0; HTiL 20.4; HBaI 10.4.

Head as broad as long. Vertexal margin subtruncate. Ocelli protuberant. Compound eyes broadly convex and largely on the anterior half of the head. Borders of the frontal carinae raised and diverging backwards. Frons anteriorly superficially concave, medially convex and posteriorly sloping towards the impair ocellus. Clypeus declivous; its anterior border gently convex medially. Mandibles long, with edentate masticatory margins and a pointed apical tooth. Scapes about half longer than broad. Second and last two funicular joints thinner than joints 3-10.

Mesosoma robust. Pronotum in dorsal view with subparallel sides. Mesonotum slightly convex. Parapsidal furrows impressed. Scutellum slightly higher than the mesonotum. Basal face of the propodeum separated from the declivous one by a marked carina.

Petiole cylindric, its anterior face truncate and separated from the dorsal one by a marked carina. Ventral process of the petiole subtriangular. Postpetiole anterolaterally angulate, broadening backwards and much narrower than the first gastric tergite.

Legs. Femora not inflated. Mid and hind metatarsi long.

Sculpture. Head dorsum minutely punctate, with transversal striae around the ocelli and on the antennal scrobe, and with large foveae on the vertexal angles and on the ventral part of the head. Dorsum of the pronotum punctate and densely covered by foveae slightly larger than those on the head. Mesonotum smooth and with very sparse, small foveae. Scutellum with foveae larger than those on the pronotum. Basal face of the propodeum and petiole covered by slightly irregular foveae of different sizes, separated by longitudinal striae. Declivous face of the propodeum with longitudinal striae. Pro- and mesopleurae smooth and with short striae close to the posterior borders. Metapleurae with irregular, longitudinal striae. Postpetiole, first gastric segment and legs smooth and with sparse, superficial punctures. Remaining gastric segments punctate.

Pilosity. Body covered by pointed hairs of three types: (1) long and suberect, dense on the head, mesosoma, sparse on the gaster and on the legs; (2) shorter than type (1) variably distributed on the body, dense on the gaster; (3) shorter than type (2), decumbent sparse on the vertexal anoles, dense on the legs.

Colour. Black. Mandibles brown. Antennae and legs yellowish-orange.

Type Material

Worker and male (Santa Catarina). Brazil. 3 syntype workers labelled "S Catharina, Schmalz, typus." in Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa: 1 syntype worker labelled: Bresil. Mayr. typus "Cylindromymrex brasiliensis Em (striatus Mayr 1887)" in Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa. examined.

References

  • Borgmeier, T. 1937b. Formigas novas ou pouco conhecidas da América do Sul e Central, principalmente do Brasil (Hym. Formicidae). Arch. Inst. Biol. Veg. (Rio J.) 3: 217-255 (page 218, queen described)
  • De Andrade, M. L. 1998a. Fossil and extant species of Cylindromyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 105:581-664. PDF (page 589, see also)
  • Emery, C. 1901b. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 45: 32-54 (page 53, worker, male described)
  • Mariano, Clea S.F. ; Delabie, J. H. C.; Pompolo, Silvia G. 2004. Nota sobre uma colônia e o cariótipo da formiga Neotropical Cylindromyrmex brasiliensis Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Cerapachyinae). Neotropical Entomology 33(2): 267-269 (page 267, karyotype)