Cyphomyrmex

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Cyphomyrmex
Temporal range: 20.43–0 Ma
Miocene – Recent
Cyphomyrmex minutus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Cyphomyrmex
Mayr, 1862
Type species
Cyphomyrmex minutus
Diversity
23 species
2 fossil species
(Species Checklist)

Cyphomyrmex minutus casent0103832 profile 1.jpg

Cyphomyrmex minutus

Cyphomyrmex minutus casent0103832 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Neoattina

Cyatta (1 species), Kalathomyrmex (1 species)





Mycetarotes
  (4 species)



Mycetosoritis
  (2 species)





Cyphomyrmex
  (23 species)




Mycetophylax
  (21 species)




Mycetagroicus
  (4 species)





Trachymyrmex
  (49 species)




Sericomyrmex
  (11 species)



Xerolitor
  (1 species)






Trachymyrmex
  (49 species)




Trachymyrmex
  (49 species)




Acromyrmex
  (62 species)



Atta
  (19 species)











Based on Ward et al. (2014), Blaimer et al. (2018) and Li et al. (2018).

A genus of fungus growing ants.

At a Glance • Fungus Grower  
 

Identification

Schultz et al (2002), Mackay and Serna (2010) - Cyphomyrmex workers and females are easily recognized, as the frontal carinae form a shield on the dorsum of the head, which covers most of the head. The mesosoma has a series of pairs of blunt tubercles in nearly all species. The first opisthogastral tergum lacks tubercles. Most surfaces are dull and without sculpture; the hairs are mostly limited to appressed, often scale-like setae that are nearly always restricted to the gaster and the head.

The genus is divided into two species complexes, the strigatus complex (Kempf 1964) and the rimosus complex (Kempf 1965; Snelling and Longino 1992). Workers of the strigatus complex can be recognized by the closed antennal scrobe (sometimes with poorly defined margins), mandibles with six or more teeth, and with a single medial pronotal tubercle (apparently a fusion of two tubercles). The species group is confined to South America. The workers of the rimosus complex have an open antennal scrobe (anteriorly), with the preocular carina curved mesially in front of the eye, and not directed to the posterior corner of the head, the mandibles have five teeth, and the pronotum lacks medial tubercles, or has a pair of tubercles. Species in the rimosus group range from the United States to South American.

Cyphomyrmex longiscapus, Cyphomyrmex costatus and Cyphomyrmex wheeleri are considered to be part of the rimosus group but share some morphological features with the strigatus complex.

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Cyphomyrmex Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Cyphomyrmex Species Richness.png

Mackay and Serna (2010) - Cyphomyrmex has two centers of species richness: the rimosus group at about 10° north (Mayhe-Nunes and Jaffe 1998), whereas the majority of the species of the strigatus group is restricted to 20° and 30° south (Sanhudo et al. 2007). The strigatus group lacks species with wide distributions (Mayhe-Nunes and Jaffe 1998) as is found in the rimosus complex.

Biology

Schultz et al (2002), Mackay and Serna (2010) - Most species nest in the soil, in rotten logs and stumps, or in hollow dead twigs. This genus also nests under bark, under moss, and within epiphytic pseudobulbs (Snelling and Longino 1992). Colonies are small, probably not exceeding 500 workers (Snelling and Longino 1992). All Cyphomyrmex species cultivate badisiomycete fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae. In the rimosus group, most species grow fungi in a yeast form (small masses of unicellular fungal cells) rather than in the multicellular mycelial form typical for all other attine ant gardens (Schultz et a1. 2002; Schultz and Brady 2008). Cyphomyrmex longiscapus, Cyphomyrmex costatus and Cyphomyrmex wheeleri are considered to be part of the rimosus group but share some morphological features with the strigatus complex. They are also the only species in the rimosus group that are known to cultivate mycelium gardens, whereas, so far as is known, all other rimosus group species cultivate yeast gardens.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • CYPHOMYRMEX [Myrmicinae: Attini]
    • Cyphomyrmex Mayr, 1862: 690. Type-species: Cyphomyrmex minutus, by monotypy.
    • [Type-species not Cryptocerus rimosus, unjustified subsequent designation by Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 161. Type-species not Meranoplus difformis, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1924d: 340.]
    • Cyphomyrmex junior synonym of Cataulacus: Roger, 1863b: 39.
    • Cyphomyrmex revived from synonymy: Mayr, 1863: 406.
    • Cyphomyrmex subgenus of Atta: Forel, 1912e: 188.
    • Cyphomyrmex revived status as genus: Emery, 1913b: 251.
    • Cyphomyrmex senior synonym of Cyphomannia: Kempf, 1962b: 29; Kempf, 1972a: 92.

References

  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 384, Cyphomyrmex in Cryptoceridae, Dacetonini)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 198, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini [Type-species not Cyphomyrmex difformis, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1924d: 340.] )
  • Bruch, C. 1914. Catálogo sistemático de los formícidos argentinos. Rev. Mus. La Plata 19: 211-234 (page 217, Cyphomyrmex as genus)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 149, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae)
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicidae, Cryptoceridae)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 770, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini)
  • Emery, C. 1913c. Études sur les Myrmicinae. [V-VII.]. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 57: 250-262 (page 251, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini; Cyphomyrmex as genus)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 42, Cyphomyrmex revived status as genus; Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini)
  • Emery, C. 1924f [1922]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C: 207-397 (page 339, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini; Cyphomyrmex as genus)
  • Forel, A. 1893b. Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 164, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini)
  • Forel, A. 1899d. Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 25-56 (page 40, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini)
  • Forel, A. 1912f. Formicides néotropiques. Part II. 3me sous-famille Myrmicinae Lep. (Attini, Dacetii, Cryptocerini). Mém. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 19: 179-209 (page 188, Cyphomyrmex as subgenus of Atta)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 247, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1962a. Retoques à classificaça~o das formigas neotropicais do gênero Heteroponera Mayr (Hym., Formicidae). Pap. Avulsos Zool. (Sa~o Paulo) 15: 29-47 (page 29, Cyphomyrmex senior synonym of Cyphomannia)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1964d. A revision of the Neotropical fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex Mayr. Part I: Group of strigatus Mayr (Hym., Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 7: 1-44 (page 1, Revision of genus)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1966 [1965]. A revision of the Neotropical fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex Mayr. Part II: Group of rimosus (Spinola) (Hym., Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 8: 161-200 (page 161, Revision of genus)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da regia~o Neotropical. Stud. Entomol. 15: 3-344 (page 92, Cyphomyrmex senior synonym of Cyphomannia)
  • Mackay, W. P. and F. Serna. 2010. Two new species of the strigatus species complex of the ant genus Cyphomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Costa Rica and Panamá. Journal of Hymenoptera Research. 19:44-50. PDF
  • Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 649-776 (page 651, 690, Cyphomyrmex as genus in Formicidae [Formicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 13: 385-460 (page 406, Cyphomyrmex as genus)
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 25, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 39, Cyphomyrmex as junior synonym of Cataulacus)
  • Snelling, R. R.; Longino, J. T. 1992. Revisionary notes on the fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex, rimosus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Attini). Pp. 479-494 in: Quintero, D., Aiello, A. (eds.) Insects of Panama and Mesoamerica: selected stu (page 479, Revision of genus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1907d. The fungus-growing ants of North America. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 23: 669-807 (page 670, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 141, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 669, Cyphomyrmex in Myrmicinae, Attini; Cyphomyrmex as genus)