|At a Glance||• Gamergate|
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Indo-Australian Region: Borneo (type locality), Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore.
Oriental Region: Bangladesh, India, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China.
Distribution based on specimens
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- rugosum. Ponera rugosa Le Guillou, 1842: 318 (w.) BORNEO. Ogata, 1987: 111 (m.). Combination in Diacamma: Mayr, 1862: 718. Senior synonym of versicolor: Roger, 1863b: 16; Emery, 1897b: 153; of frontalis, geminatum, geometrica, japensis, papuanum, saussurei, sculpturata, smithi, striata, vagans (and its junior synonym indica), and material of the unavailable names divergens, macreta, pulchellum referred here: Wilson, 1958d: 368. Current subspecies: nominal plus anceps, arcuatum, balinense, birmanum, celebense, doveri, gibbosum, hortense, javanum, jerdoni, latispinum, lombokense, longiceps, ovale, rothneyi, sculptum, sikkimense, viridipurpureum.
- versicolor. Ponera versicolor Smith, F. 1857a: 65 (w.) BORNEO. Combination in Diacamma: Emery, 1887b: 438. Subspecies of geometricum: Emery, 1887b: 438. Junior synonym of rugosum: Roger, 1863b: 16; Emery, 1897b: 153; Emery, 1911d: 66.
- sculpturata. Ponera sculpturata Smith, F. 1859a: 142 (w.) INDONESIA (Aru I.). Karavaiev, 1926d: 417 (m.). Combination in Diacamma: Mayr, 1862: 718. Subspecies of geometricum: Dalla Torre, 1893: 28; of rugosum: Emery, 1897b: 159; Forel, 1901f: 338; Santschi, 1920g: 178; Crawley, 1924: 384; Karavaiev, 1925b: 120; Santschi, 1932b: 12; Karavaiev, 1935a: 65. Junior synonym of rugosum: Wilson, 1958d: 368.
- striata. Ponera striata Smith, F. 1860b: 104 (w.) INDONESIA (Batjan I.). Combination in Diacamma: Mayr, 1886c: 361. Subspecies of versicolor: Emery, 1887b: 436 (footnote); of rugosum: Emery, 1897b: 161. Junior synonym of rugosum: Wilson, 1958d: 368.
- tortuolosa. Ponera tortuolosa Smith, F. 1863: 18 (w.) INDONESIA (Seram I.). [Junior primary homonym of Ponera tortuolosa Smith, F. 1858b: 99 (now in Gnamptogenys).] Replacement name: smithi: Donisthorpe, 1943e: 115. Subspecies of geometricum: Emery, 1887b: 438; of rugosum: Emery, 1897b: 550. Revived status as species: Donisthorpe, 1932c: 471.
- frontalis. Diacamma vagans var. frontalis Stitz, 1911a: 355 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Junior synonym of rugosum: Wilson, 1958d: 368.
- papuanum. Diacamma vagans var. papuanum Stitz, 1911a: 354, fig. 5 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Junior synonym of rugosum: Wilson, 1958d: 368.
- saussurei. Diacamma bispinosum var. saussurei Forel, 1922: 89 (w.) INDONESIA (Halmahera I.). Junior synonym of rugosum: Wilson, 1958d: 368.
- japensis. Diacamma rugosum subsp.japensis Donisthorpe, 1941h: 52 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Junior synonym of rugosum: Wilson, 1958d: 368.
- smithi. Diacamma rugosum subsp. smithi Donisthorpe, 1943e: 115. Replacement name for Ponera tortuolosa Smith, F. 1863: 18. [Junior primary homonym of Ponera tortuolosa Smith, F. 1858b: 99.] Junior synonym of rugosum: Wilson, 1958d: 368.
Type-series is supposed to be two syntypes, one worker and one queen, but the queen cannot be located in either Oxford University Museum of Natural History or The Natural History Museum. Two localities were given in the original description, Ceram and Bouru. Donisthorpe, in his review of Smith types, put a type label on a worker specimen with “B” (= Bouru) upon the data disc, indicating it as a type of tortuolosa. However, a second specimen in OXUM has a data disc “Cer.” and a det. label (by Kirby?), and this specimen also has a Donisthorpe type-label stating “tortuolosa.”
It is my opinion that the “Cer.” specimen is the genuine syntype worker and that the “B” worker specimen is not. Comparing both workers to the original description there is agreement on most points, but there are the following differences.
- Description says, “striae on prothorax transverse and curved.” The “Cer.” specimen matches this but on the “B” specimen the pronotal striae are notably circular in direction.
- Descripton says that behind the pronotum, striae are, “oblique, running from the middle forwards down the sides.” The “Cer.” specimen matches this but the “B” specimen does not.
- Description says, “First node of abdomen has a curved striation much more delicate than on the thorax.” The “Cer.” specimen matches this but on the “B” specimen striation is visible only on the basal third of the segment, and even here it is extremely faint.
I conclude that the Bouru locality was that of the now lost queen, and have placed a blue “syntype” disc on the Seram worker.
Holotype worker in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “Aroo” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.
No type-material was found at either Oxford University Museum of Natural History or The Natural History Museum. A single worker in Oxford University Museum of Natural History fits the description reasonably well and is labelled “striata,” but its locality of “M” (Mysol I.) is incorrect, not the stated type-locality of “Bac” (= Batjan I.).
Holotype worker in The Natural History Museum. Labelled “Swainson. Brazil.”
Two worker syntypes in The Natural History Museum. Labelled “Phil. Isla. 42/22.” Acc. Reg.: “1842 no. 22. Philippine Islds. Purchased of Mr Cuming.”
Smith gives two localities in the original description, Sarawak and Philippines. A specimen from “SAR” (= Sarawak), the correct type-locality for versicolor, has a Donisthorpe label that declares it to be the type, but it also carries a Donisthorpe det.-label “rugosum Le Guil.” This appears to be the correct det. for the specimen as all versicolor material that has been seen very clearly exhibits the colour characters given by Smith: “P. purpureo et violaceo variegata........”, and, “Black, with purple, violet and green tints in different lights,” and, “Some specimens of this species are entirely bronze-green.” The two Philippines workers in The Natural History Museum show the requisite colours.
- Baltazar, C. R. 1966. A catalogue of Philippine Hymenoptera (with a bibliography, 1758-1963). Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 1-488 (page 242, listed)
- Emery, C. 1897h. Revisione del genere Diacamma Mayr. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna (n.s.) 1: 147-167 (page 153, Senior synonym of versicolor)
- Fukumoto, Y. & Abe, T. (1983) Social organization of colony movement in the tropical ponerine ant, Diacamma rugosum (Le
Guillou). Journal of Ethology, 1, 101–108.
- Le Guillou, E. J. F. 1842 . Catalogue raisonné des insectes hyménoptères recueillis dans le voyage de circumnavigation des corvettes l'Astrolabe et la Zélée. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 10: 311-324 (page 318, worker described)
- Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 649-776 (page 718, Combination in Diacamma)
- Moffett, M. W. 1986e. Evidence of workers serving as queens in the genus Diacamma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Cambridge) 93:151-152.
- Ogata, K. 1987a. A generic synopsis of the poneroid complex of the family Formicidae in Japan (Hymenoptera). Part 1. Subfamilies Ponerinae and Cerapachyinae. Esakia 25: 97-132 (page 111, male described)
- Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 16, Senior synonym of versicolor)
- Yun-Ling Ke, Wei-Jin Tian, Tian-Yong Zhuang, Guan-Jun Cen, Chun-Xiao Wang, & Mei-Fang Liang. 2011. Capture and Selection of Prey in the Ponerine Ant Diacamma rugosum (Hymenoptera; Formicidae). Sociobiology 58: 635-650.
- Wheeler, W.M. & Chapman, J.W. (1922) The mating of Diacamma. Psyche (Camb.), 29, 203–211.
- Wilson, E. O. 1958g. Studies on the ant fauna of Melanesia III. Rhytidoponera in western Melanesia and the Moluccas. IV. The tribe Ponerini. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 119: 303-371 (page 368, Senior synonym of frontalis, geminatum, geometrica, japensis, papuanum, saussurei, sculpturata, smithi, striata, vagans (and its junior synonym indica), and material of the unavailable names divergens, macreta and pulchellum referred here)