Ethogram Wilson 1976

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A Cephalotes varians ethogram from: Wilson E.O. 1976. A social ethogram of the neotropical arboreal ant, Zacryptocerus varians (Fr. Smith). Animal Behavior. 24:354-363. DOI 10.1016/S0003-3472(76)80043-7

"Thirty eight categories of behavioural acts were recorded in the minor worker caste. When the frequency data (number of acts observed per category) were fitted to a lognormal Poisson distribution by the Fagen-Goldman method (see Fagen 1974), the total number of behavioural categories, including those still unseen, was estimated to be forty-two, with a 95 per cent confidence interval of [38, 46]."

See the species page or the publication for more information.

Behavioral Act Minor Workers Major Workers Queen
(N = 2163) (N =61) (N = 7)
1. Self grooming 0.2621 0.3443 0
2. Antennal tipping: tips of antennae brought together as body is held rigid 0.009 0 0
3. Allogroom minor worker 0.467 0.656 0
4. Allogroom major worker 0.0028 0 0
5. Allogroom queen 0.0023 0 0
BROOD CARE
6. Carry or manipulate egg (or eggs in succession) 0.0065 0 0
7. Lick egg (or eggs in succession) 0.0074 0 0
8. Carry or manipulate larvae (or larvae in succession) 0.0518 0.0328 0
9. Lick larvae (or larvae in succession) 0.1188 0.0328 0
10. Assist larval ecdysis 0.0005 0 0
11. Assist ecdysis to pupa 0.0032 0 0
12. Carry or manipulate pupa (or pupae in succession) 0.0055 0 0
13. Lick pupa (or pupae in succession) 0.0079 0.0328 0
14. Assist eclosion to adult 0.0009 0 0
15. Lay normal egg 0 0 0.1429
REGURGITATE
16. With larva 0.0536 0.0492 0
17. With minor worker 0.2164 0.2951 0.8571
18. With major worker 0.0083 0.0656 0
19. With queen 0.0028 0 0
ABDOMINAL TROPHALLAXIS
20. Receive or solicit from anal region of minor worker 0.0125 0 0
21. Receive or solicit from anal region of major worker 0.0032 0 0
22. Receive or solicit from anal region of queen 0.0028 0.0164 0
23. Lick wall of nest 0.006 0.0492 0
24. Forage outside nest 0.0698 0 0
25. Feed on honey outside nest 0.0411 0 0
26. Feed on solid food (trophic egg. larval skin. etc.) inside nest 0.0079 0 0
27. Feed on insect outside nest 0.0171 0 0
28. Carry dea d insect 0.0046 0 0
29. Carry dea d nestmate 0.0129 0 0
30. Carry live adult nestmate 0 0 0
31. Extrude sting and/or anal tube 0.0023 0 0
32. Lay odour trail to food 0.0023 0 0
33. 'Jittering': vibrating entire body up and down 0.0028 0.0164 0
34. Extrude infrabuccal pellet 0.0014 0 0
35. Feed infrabuccal pellet to larva 0.0018 0 0
36. Lay trophic egg 0.0023 0 0
37. Feed trophic egg to larva 0.0032 0 0
38. Feed trophic egg to minor worker 0.0005 0 0
39. Cannibalism: feeding on own larva 0.0009 0 0
40. Excavating 0.006 0 0