Eurhopalothrix papuana

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Eurhopalothrix papuana
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Eurhopalothrix
Species: E. papuana
Binomial name
Eurhopalothrix papuana
(De Andrade, 2007)

Eurhopalothrix papuana casent0911130 p 1 high.jpg

Eurhopalothrix papuana casent0911130 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Nothing is known about the biology of Eurhopalothrix papuana.

Identification

A Basiceros species belonging to the "brevicornis-group" of "Eurhopalothrix" as defined by Brown & Kempf (1960) and Taylor (1968a), resembling Eurhopalothrix brevicornis but differing from it by the following combination of characters: erect specialized hairs on the head dorsum 10 (8+2) instead of 16 (8+4+4), first gastral tergite without standing hairs instead of with 3 pairs, and larger size (TL 2.1 mm instead of 1.7-1.8 mm). (de Andrade 2007)

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: New Guinea (type locality).

Check distribution from AntMaps.

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Eurhopalothrix papuana for further details

Biology

Little is known about the biology of most species in this genus. Nests are rarely found, and queens and males have not been collected for many species. Longino (2013) summarized their biology "Eurhopalothrix specimens are encountered almost exclusively in samples from mass extraction techniques that recover small arthropods in sifted litter, rotten wood, and soil. Densities, at least in the northern Neotropics, are usually low, with workers occurring in < 10% of quantitative samples of 1 m2 litter plots, but occasionally may reach densities as high as 40% of samples. Live colonies of Old World Eurhopalothrix were observed by Wilson (1956) and Wilson and Brown (1984), and a Costa Rican colony of Basiceros manni was observed by Wilson and Hölldobler (1986). All basicerotines, including Eurhopalothrix, are thought to be predators in tropical leaf litter, relying on stealth or sit-and-wait techniques. Sampled specimens are often coated with a thin layer of clay, especially on the face, which is thought to function as camouflage, enhancing crypsis (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1986). Highly specialized spatulate setae may be instrumental in acquisition and adherence of the clay layer (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1986)."

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • papuana. Basiceros papuanum De Andrade, in Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 138, fig. 48 (w.q.) NEW GUINEA. Combination in Eurhopalothrix (unpublished).

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Head dorsum gently convex in full dorsal view. Postero-lateral sides of the head with the two anterior thirds diverging posteriorly to a subround angle and the posterior third gently converging into a weakly concave vertexal margin. Frontal lobes weakly expanded and convex. Antennal fossae ventrally with a marked carina visible in full-face view, straight, covering the lower margin of the scrobes and ending below the eye. Eyes small, with 2 ommatidia in the longest row, placed on the upper margin of the antennal scrobes. With head in profile the scrobes are very distinct, with the upper margin behind the eye with a thin margin, and the lower one thicker and lamellaceous. Anterior clypeal border medially with a broad concavity. Scapes slightly compressed dorsoventrally, 'with subbasal strong bend. Antennae with seven segments. Apical funicular joint slightly longer than the rest of the funiculus. Mandibles triangular, with a series of 12 teeth, teeth 3-5-7-9 much longer than the remaining ones.

Mesosoma in profile with pronotum and mesonotum forming a convex arch and basal face of the propodeum strongly sloping posteriorly. Propodeal suture very superficially impressed. Area between basal and declivous faces of the propodeum with a small triangular sub-lamellaceous tooth prolonging to the declivous face as a thin lamella.

Petiole with a long neck and with high, convex node. Petiolar node slightly more than 1/2 broader than long. Ventral surface of the petiolar neck with a small lamellaceous tooth pointed forwards anteriorly. Postpetiole convex in side view and about 1/2 broader than long and broadly connected to the gaster.

Gaster oval. Base of the first gastral tergite clearly marginate. Base of the first gastral sternite superficially marginate.

Sculpture. Head, mesosoma, petiole, postpetiole and gaster densely foveolate, the foveae slightly sparser on the first gastral sternite. Legs strongly punctuate.

Pilosity. Body with appressed, short, decumbent hairs, very rare on the anterior face of pronotal dorsum, on the lower pro- and mesopleurae, and on the propodeum, thicker on the remaining part of the pronotum and mesonotum, thinner and slightly longer on the posterior part of the first gastral tergite, longer and decumbent on the posterior half of the first gastral sternite. Frons with two rows of specialized hairs, the anterior row composed by 8 clavate hairs forming an arch connecting the eyes and the posterior row composed by 2 hairs on the middle of the vertex. Remaining gastral tergites and sternites with few, sub decumbent, spatulate hairs. In addition the second, third and fourth gastral sternites with subdecumbent, long and slightly spatulate hairs. Distal outer face of the tibiae and upper outer face of tarsi with one or two thick spatulate hairs each.

Colour. Ferruginous-brown.

Measurements (in mm) and indices: Worker (holotype): TL 2.10; HL 0.48; HW 0.53; SL 0.29; ML 0.13; EL 0.04; WL 0.49; CI 110.4; SI 54.7; MI 27.1.

Queen

Similar to the worker but differing in the following details. Eyes large. Ocelli present. Scape and mandibles as in Fig. 48. Mesosoma robust and flat in profile. Parapsidal furrows weakly impressed. Sides of the scutellum converging posteriorly to form a rounded posterior border. Basal face of the propodeum very short and in the same plane as the declivous one. Propodeal tooth and lamellae less developed.

Pilosity. Similar to the worker but the anterior half of the mesonotum with two pairs of short, thin, erect hairs on the centre and each side of the mesonotum with a similar hair as the dorsal ones. Pre-scutellum and scutellum with a clavate hair on each side, thicker on the scutellum.

Gyne (paratype): TL 2.51; HL 0.55; HW 0.62; SL 0.33; ML 0.20; EL 0.13; WL 0.72; CI 112.7; SI 53.2; MI 36.4.

Type Material

Holotype worker (left antenna and left hind tibia and tarsus missing) from Papua New Guinea labelled: Papua NG: Morobe. Vvau, 1150 m, 17.V.1992, G. Cuccodoro, # 2C (Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève). Paratype: 1 dealate gyne (right funiculus missing), same data and collection as the holotype.

Etymology

"Papuanus" is a neologism indicating the provenance of this species from Papua New Guinea.

References