Forelius

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Forelius
Forelius mccooki
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Tribe: Leptomyrmecini
Genus: Forelius
Emery, 1888
Type species
Iridomyrmex mccooki, now Forelius mccooki
Diversity
18 species
(Species Checklist)

Forelius mccooki casent0005322 profile 1.jpg

Forelius mccooki

Forelius mccooki casent0005322 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Dolichoderinae

Tapinomini
  (6 genera)





Bothriomyrmecini
  (5 genera)




Dolichoderini
  (1 genus)


Leptomyrmecini


Leptomyrmex




Dorymyrmex



Forelius







Azteca



Gracilidris





Linepithema




Austral Genera (Anonychomyrma, Doleromyrma, Froggattella, Iridomyrmex, Nebothriomyrmex, Ochetellus, Papyrius, Philidris, Turneria)










Based on Ward et al. 2010.

Species of Forelius are ground nesters and occur in drier habitats. Nests may be under rocks or in the soil with a small crater of loose soil at the entrance. Workers forage for honeydew and arthropods on the ground or in trees. They are usually active during the warmer parts of the day and generally have a high thermal tolerance as they often forage when other ants have retreated to their nests due to the heat. Foraging is singly or in dense columns and workers characteristically move in a rapid, frenzied fashion.

At a Glance • Polygynous  
 

Identification

Shattuck (1992) - Worker: Anterior clypeal margin with long, ventrally curved setae which are about the same length as the closed mandibles; mandibles with 5 teeth and 0-2 denticles, a distinct basal angle, and a smooth basal margin; pronotum with 2 elongate hairs (at least 1/3 longer than others on the pronotum) (rarely more), and 1 to about 14 short hairs; petiolar scale reduced and strongly inclined anteriorly, or absent; first gastral segment projecting anteriorly and concealing petiole in dorsal view (anterior base visible in some species); propodeal spiracle sometimes elongate. North and South America.

Queen: Anterior clypeal margin with moderately ventrally curved setae which are about the same length as the closed mandibles; mandibles with 5 to 6 teeth, 0 to 2 denticles, and with the basal margin smooth and without teeth or denticles; petiolar scale vertical and not inclined anteriorly; fore wing with an open radial cell and without closed discoidal cells; hind wing with 1 closed cell.

Male: Second funicular segment with a lateral bend; palp formula 5:3; pygostyles vestigial; scape approximately the same length as funicular segments 1 +2+3; anterior clypeal margin with setae which are approximately the same length as the closed mandibles; fore wing radial cell open; hind wing without closed cells.

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Forelius Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Forelius Species Richness.png An unnamed fossil species is known from Chiapas, Mexico (Totolapa amber, Miocene; Duran-Ruiz et al., 2013).

Biology

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club gradual • Palp formula 6,4 • Total dental count 5-8 • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple-pectinate • Eyes present • Scrobes absent • Caste some size-variable • Sting absent

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • FORELIUS [Dolichoderinae: Leptomyrmecini]
    • Forelius Emery, 1888d: 389. Type-species: Iridomyrmex mccooki, by monotypy.
    • Forelius senior synonym of Neoforelius: Shattuck, 1992c: 87; Cuezzo, 2000: 204.
  • NEOFORELIUS [junior synonym of Forelius]
    • Neoforelius Kusnezov, 1953b: 327. Type-species: Neoforelius tucumanus, by monotypy.
    • Neoforelius junior synonym of Forelius: Shattuck, 1992c: 87; Cuezzo, 2000: 204.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Shattuck (1992):

Worker

HEAD. Vertex weakly convex to weakly concave. Compound eyes present, approximately round; relatively anterior on head. Ocelli absent. Antennae 12 segmented. Scape short, at most surpassing the vertex by less than one-third its length. Anterolateral c1ypeal margin even with the mediolateral region. Anteromedial c1ypeal margin entire, without a central notch or concavity of any type. Anterior clypeal setae 4-6 (rarely 8); about the same length as the closed mandibles; moderately curved ventrally. Posterior clypeal margin between the anterior and posterior surfaces of the antennal socket cavities. Anterior tentorial pit nearer the antennal socket than the mandibular insertion. Frontal carina present. Anterolateral hypostoma reduced to a thin sclerite. Medial hypostoma entire. Psammophore absent (but with between 2 and about 12 elongate hairs randomly placed on gula). MOUTHPARTS. Palp formula 6:4. Third maxillary palp segment subequal in length to segment 4. Fifth maxillary palp segment at the apical extreme of segment 4. Mandible with 5-6 teeth and 0-2 denticles. Apical tooth subequal in length to, to elongate and much longer than, the subapical tooth. Basal angle distinct, with a well developed tooth or angle separating the masticatory and basal margins. Basal margin smooth and without teeth or denticles. MESOSOMA. Posteroventral pronotum lateral, rounded or angled. Mesopleural process absent. Anteromedial mesosternum even with the lateral regions. Declivitous face of propodeum convex to flat; dorsal face convex, longer or shorter than the declivitous face. Propodeal angle distinct or indistinct. Mesosomal spines and tooth absent. Erect pronotal hairs 2-16 (2 (rarely more) hairs elongate (at least 1/3 longer than any other hairs on the pronotum) and the remainder short). Dorsal pro-mesonotal junction with the mesonotum slightly above, or even with, the pronotum. Metanotal groove either forming a distinct angle between the mesonotum and propodeum, or reduced to a suture and with the mesonotum and propodeum forming a continuous, uninterrupted surface. Metanotal spiracle lateral and ventral ofthe dorsal surface when viewed in lateral profile. Propodeal spiracle lateral and ventral of the propodeal dorsum (sometimes greatly elongate). Hind tibial spur with well developed barbules along entire inner surface (except extreme base). PETIOLE. Scale present or reduced; ridged and with a distinct angle dorsally; strongly inclined anteriorly and with the anterior face much shorter than the posterior face. Venter with a well developed lobe. GASTER. First tergite projecting anteriorly and concealing the petiole in dorsal view (anterior base of pedicel visible in some species) and with a groove or indentation for the reception of the entire height of the petiole. Anterior tergosternal suture of the first segment extending laterally from the helcium in a distinct arch which extends dorsal of the dorsal helcial surface. Fifth tergite ventral, gaster with 4 apparent tergites. Gastral compression dorsoventral. Fourth sternite keel- shaped posteriorly. GENERAL CHARACTERS. Worker caste monomorphic (rarely weakly polymorphic). Chromosome number 16 (n=16, F. foetidus (= F. maccooki), Crozier 1970a}. Integumentthin and flexible, weakly sculptured. PROVENTRICULUS. Cupola much broader than bulb; round; with short pile; smooth, without sculpture; and with short, lateral phragma. Bulb partially hidden by cupola in lateral view. Longitudinal muscle No. 1 present or absent. Occlusory tract absent.

Queen

HEAD. Vertexflattoweakly concave. Compound eyes relatively anterior on head. Antennae 12 segmented. Scape short, surpassing the vertex by less than one-half scape length. Anterolateral clypeal margin even with the mediolateral region. Anteromedial clypeal margin entire, without a central notch or concavity of any type. Anterior clypeal setae 6; about the same length as the closed mandibles; moderately curved ventrally. Posterior clypeal margin between the anterior and posterior surfaces of the antennal socket cavities. Anterior tentorial pit nearer the antennal socket than the mandibular insertion. Anterolateral hypostoma reduced to a thin sclerite. Medial hypostoma entire. Psammophore absent. MOUTHPARTS. Palp formula 6:4. Third maxillary palp segment subequal in length to segment 4. Fifth maxillary palp segment at the apical extreme of segment 4. Mandible with 5-6 teeth and 0- 2 denticles. Apical tooth slightly longer than the subapical tooth. Basal angle distinct, with a well developed tooth or angle separating the masticatory and basal margins. Basal margin smooth and without teeth or denticles. MESOSOMA. Posteroventral pronotum lateral, rounded or angled. Episternal suture complete. Mesopleural process absent. Anteromedial mesosternum even with the lateral regions. Axilla parallel and entire. Anterior axillar suture straight. Declivitous face of propodeum convex; dorsal face convex, subequal in length to the declivitous face. Propodeal angle indistinct. Propodeal suture absent. Mesosomal spines and tooth absent. Erect mesoscutal hairs about 6- 30; short, less than twice the maximum scape diameter. Propodeal spiracle lateral and ventral of the propodeal dorsum. Hind tibial spur with well developed barbules along entire inner surface (except extreme base). WINGS. Radial cell open. Fore wing with 1 cubital and no discoidal cells. Hind wing with 1 cell. PETIOLE. Scale present; either rounded and forming an even arch dorsally, or ridged and with a distinct angle dorsally; vertical and not inclined anteriorly. Venter with a well developed, rounded lobe. GASTER. First segment vertical and not concealing the petiole in dorsal view and with a groove or indentation for the reception of the entire height of the petiole. Fifth tergite ventral, gaster with 4 apparent tergites. Gastral compression absent (gaster circular in cross section). Fourth sternite flat across entire posterior border.

Male

HEAD. Inner margin of eye entire, flat. Scape length at most only slightly longer than the length of funicular segments 1 +2+3, or occasionally much longer than the length of funicular segments 1 +2+3 but not exceeding the vertex. First funicular segment cylindrical or cone-shaped. Second funicular segment cylindrical and with a lateral bend. Funicular segments 2 and 3 at most twice as long as broad. Third and fourth funicular segments straight. Anteromedial clypeal margin entire, without a central notch or concavity of any type. Anterior clypeal setae 2-6; about the same length as the closed mandibles; straight. Posterior clypeal margin between the anterior and posterior surfaces of the antennal socket cavities. Anterior tentorial pit nearer the antennal socket than the mandibular insertion. Anterolateral hypostoma reduced to a thin sclerite. Medial hypostoma entire. MOUTHPARTS. Palp formula 5:3 (apparently 0:0 in F. go/bachi (Kusnezov 1953a)). Third maxillary palp segment subequal in length to segment 4. Fifth maxillary palp atthe apical extreme of segment 4. Mandible with 1-5 teeth and no denticles. Apical tooth elongate and much longer than the subapical tooth. Basal angle either distinct (with a well developed tooth or angle separating the masticatory and basal margins) or indistinct (with a relatively uninterrupted curve between the two margins and without a distinct tooth or angle). Basal margin smooth and without teeth or denticles. MESOSOMA. Posteroventral pronotum lateral, rounded or angled. Episternal suture present, complete. Anteromedial mesosternum even with the lateral regions. Axilla parallel and entire. Anterior axillar suture straight. Declivitous face of propodeum convex; dorsal face convex, longer than, to subequal in length to, the declivitous face. Propodeal angle distinct. WINGS. Radial cell open. Fore wing with 0-1 cubital and no discoidal cells. Pterostigmal appendage absent. Hind wing cells absent. PETIOLE. Scale present; rounded and forming an even arch dorsally; vertical and not inclined anteriorly. Venter with a slight or weakly developed lobe. Attachment to gaster broad. GASTER. First segment vertical and not concealing the petiole in dorsal view, smooth and without a groove or indentation. GENITALIA. Pygostyles vestigial. Digitus linear, with a slight ventral arch. Cuspis absent. Ventral lobe of volsella present as concave lobe. Aedeagus with ventral teeth.

Larva

Shape dolichoderoid. Protuberances present or absent; when present, as a single boss located mid-dorsally on second abdominal tergite. Body hairs sparse; simple; short. 9 spiracular pairs. Antennae large or short.

References

  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 384, Forelius in Dolichoderidae)
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 26, Forelius in Dolichoderinae, Dolichoderini)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 88, Forelius in Dolichoderinae, Dolichoderini)
  • Cuezzo, F. 2000. Revisión del género Forelius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae). Sociobiology 35: 197-275 PDF (page 204, Forelius senior synonym of Neoforelius)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 168, Forelius in Dolichoderinae)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1943g. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [part]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(10): 617-688 (page 645, Forelius in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)
  • Duran-Ruiz, C. et al. 2013. Ants from the Miocene Totolapa amber (Chiapas, Mexico), with the first record of the genus Forelius (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Can. J. Earth Sci. 50, 495-502 (dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2012-0166).
  • Emery, C. 1888d. Über den sogenannten Kaumagen einiger Ameisen. Z. Wiss. Zool. 46: 378-412 (page 389, Forelius as genus)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 771, Forelius in Dolichoderinae)
  • Emery, C. 1913a [1912]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137: 1-50 (page 35, Forelius in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)
  • Forel, A. 1899f. Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 81-104 (page 102, Forelius in Dolichoderinae)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 248, Forelius in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)
  • Jaffe, K. 1993. El mundo de las hormigas. Baruta, Venezuela: Equinoccio (Ediciones de la Universidad Simón Bolívar), 188 pp. (page 9, Forelius in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini (anachronism))
  • Kusnezov, N. 1957e. Nuevas especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Rev. Soc. Urug. Entomol. 2: 7-18 (page 16, Key to Neotropical species)
  • Shattuck, S. O. 1992c. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 21: 1-181 (page 87, Forelius senior synonym of Amyrmex and Neoforelius, and review of genus; Forelius in Dolichoderinae, Dolichoderini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 142, Forelius in Dolichoderinae)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 690, Forelius in Dolichoderinae, Tapinomini)