Formica

AntWiki - Where Ant Biologists Share Their Knowledge
Jump to: navigation, search
Formica
Formica rufa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Formica
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Formica rufa
Diversity
278 species
67 fossil species
(Species Checklist)

Formica rufa casent0173862 profile 1.jpg

Formica rufa

Formica rufa casent0173862 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Formicinae

Myrmelachistini
  (2 genera)




Lasiini
  (9 genera)




Melophorini
  (9 genera)




Formicini


Polyergus
  (15 species)




Formica
  (278 species)



Iberoformica
  (2 species)






Bajcaridris
  (3 species)




Proformica
  (28 species)




Cataglyphis
  (109 species)



Rossomyrmex
  (4 species)










Gesomyrmex, Oecophylla



Plagiolepidini
  (10 genera)





Gigantiops, Myrmoteras, Santschiella



Camponotini
  (8 genera)








Based on Ward et al. 2016.

A large holarctic genus that are common in many northern temperate areas. For many reasons this genus as a whole has many well studied species. The taxonomy is fractured into many smaller subdivisions (both subgenera and species groups; see Formica species groups), many of which have no official taxonomic designation and are poorly delineated. In some cases older group names have been replaced by newer names, and new arrangements of species, but the older groups remain in use by some myrmecologists and not others.

Photo Gallery

  • Formica sanguinea group workers tending aphids at Grafton, Massachusetts. Photo by Tom Murray.

Identification

Formica species groups

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Formica Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Formica Species Richness.png

Biology

Formica 6954.jpg

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club absent • Palp formula 6,4; 5,4 • Total dental count 7-10(0-3) • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple • Eyes present, ocelli present • Scrobes absent • Caste some with marked size-variation • Sting absent

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • FORMICA [Formicinae: Formicini]
    • Formica Linnaeus, 1758: 579. Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Curtis, 1839: 752.
    • Formica senior synonym of Formicina: Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • Formica senior synonym of Raptiformica, Serviformica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote).
    • Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica): Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448.
    • Formica senior synonym of Neoformica: Buren, 1968a: 39.
    • Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica, Formicina, Neoformica, Raptiformica, Serviformica: Agosti, 1994a: 106.
  • ADFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Adformica Lomnicki, 1925a: 164 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica exsecta, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1927b: 316.
    • Adformica junior synonym of Coptoformica: Stitz, 1939: 306 (as Adformica and Coptoformica share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
  • COPTOFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Coptoformica Müller, 1923: 146 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica exsecta, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1941f: 37.
    • Coptoformica senior synonym of Adformica: Stitz, 1939: 306 (as Adformica and Coptoformica share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
    • Coptoformica junior synonym of Formica: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • FORMICINA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Formicina Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 172. Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • [Type-species not Formica flava, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1916a: 61 (footnote); repeated by Emery, 1916b: 239 and Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 170.]
    • Formicina junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • Formicina incorrectly as replacement name for Lasius Fabricius: Emery, 1916a: 60; Emery, 1916b: 239; Bondroit, 1918: 19.
    • Formicina incorrectly as subgenus of Lasius: Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 172.
    • Formicina incorrectly as junior synonym of Lasius: Emery, 1925b: 226; Brown, 1973b: 180.
    • Formicina incorrectly as junior synonym of Acanthomyops: Donisthorpe, 1927b: 209.
    • Formicina junior synonym of Formica: Agosti, 1994a: 106.
    • [Formica and Formicina share the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute.]
  • NEOFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Neoformica Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 82 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica pallidefulva, by original designation.
    • [Neoformica also described as new by Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 548.]
    • Neoformica junior synonym of Formica: Buren, 1968a: 39; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • RAPTIFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Raptiformica Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica sanguinea, by original designation.
    • Raptiformica subgenus of Formica: Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 258; Creighton, 1950a: 460.
    • Raptiformica junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • SERVIFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Serviformica Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica fusca, by original designation.
    • Serviformica subgenus of Formica: Forel, 1913i: 361; Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 245.
    • Serviformica junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Francoeur, 1973: 34; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 106.

References

  • Agosti, D. 1991. Revision of the oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 16: 293-310 (page 295, Formica in Formicinae, Formica genus group)
  • Agosti, D. 1994b. The phylogeny of the ant tribe Formicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the description of a new genus. Syst. Entomol. 19: 93-117 (page 106, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Formicina, Hypochira, Iberoformica, Neoformica, Raptiformica, and Serviformica)
  • Agosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 60: 261-293 (page 285, Balkans)
  • Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. (page 552, former European USSR)
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 384, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 287, France and Mediterranean basin)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 128, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 41, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
  • Buren, W. F. 1968a. Some fundamental taxonomic problems in Formica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 3: 25-40 (page 39, Formica senior synonym of Neoformica)
  • Buren, W. F. 1968a. Some fundamental taxonomic problems in Formica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 3: 25-40 (page 36, Key to Nearctic fauna)
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1978. A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste (Hym. Aculeata). EOS. Rev. Esp. Entomol. 52: 65-95 (page 93, Iberian Peninsula)
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomol. Scand. 8: 1-174 (page 112, Fennoscandia and Denmark)
  • Cotti, G. 1963. Bibliografia ragionata 1930-1961 del gruppo Formica rufa in Italiano, Deutsch, English. Collana Verde 8: 1-413 (page 1, rufa-group)
  • Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 1-585 (page 456, Keys to Nearctic fauna)
  • Curtis, J. 1839. Formica rufa. The red, hill, or horse Ant, or Pismire. Plate 752 [plus 2 unnumbered pages of text] in: Curtis, J. British entomology; being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland. Volum (page 752, Type-species: Formica rufa; by subsequent designation)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 192, Formica in Camponotinae)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1965a. Ants of the genus Formica L. of Mongolia and northeast Tibet (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Ann. Zool. (Warsaw) 23: 15-43 (page 15, Mongolia and Tibet)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1967a. Ants of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, g. Formica). Moskva: Nauka Publishing House, 236 pp. (page 39, key to Palearctic fauna)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1967b. Ants of the genus Formica from the Baltic amber. Paleontol. Zh. 1967(2 2: 80-89 (page 80, (Baltic Amber))
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 772, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 241, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 450, Formica in Camponotinae [Camponotidae])
  • Forel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 15: 337-392 (page 373, Formica in Camponotinae [Camponotidae])
  • Forel, A. 1886h. Études myrmécologiques en 1886. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 30: 131-215 (page 205, Formica in Camponotinae, Camponotini)
  • Forel, A. 1893b. Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 165, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Forel, A. 1899h. Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 105-136 (page 127, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Forel, A. 1912j. Formicides néotropiques. Part VI. 5me sous-famille Camponotinae Forel. Mém. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 20: 59-92 (page 89, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 250, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Francoeur, A. 1973. Révision taxonomique des espèces néarctiques du groupe fusca, genre Formica (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Mém. Soc. Entomol. Qué. 3: 1-316 (page 34, Formica senior synonym of Serviformica)
  • Francoeur, A. 1973. Révision taxonomique des espèces néarctiques du groupe fusca, genre Formica (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Mém. Soc. Entomol. Qué. 3: 1-316 (page 272, key to Nearctic fauna (fusca group))
  • Goropashnaya, A.V., Fedorov, V.B., Seifert, B., Pamilo, P. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships of Palaearctic Formica species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences. PloS one, 7(7), p.e41697.
  • Gösswald, K. 1985. Organisation und Leben der Ameisen. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 355 pp. (page 274, Germany)
  • Gösswald, K. 1989. Die Waldameise. Band 1. Biologische Grundlagen, Ökologie und Verhalten. Wiesbaden: AULA-Verlag, xi + 660 pp. (page 1, rufa-group)
  • Kutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 236, Switzerland)
  • Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, A. 1835 [1836]. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Hyménoptères. Tome I. Paris: Roret, 547 pp. (page 199, Formica in Formicites)
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae [= Stockholm]: L. Salvii, 824 pp. (page 579, Formica as genus)
  • Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 45, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 649-776 (page 653, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 8, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1868c. Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Beitr. Naturkd. Preuss. 1: 1-102 (page 47, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
  • Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Pr (page 1448, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Serviformica and Raptiformica.)
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 1, Formica in Formicidae)
  • Smith, M. R. 1951c. Family Formicidae. Pp. 778-875 in: Muesebeck, C. F., Krombein, K. V., Townes, H. K. (eds.) Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue. U. S. Dep. Agric. Agric. Monogr. 2:1-1420. (page 860, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Serviformica and Raptiformica.)
  • Snelling, R. R.; Buren, W. F. 1985. Description of a new species of slave-making ant in the Formica sanguinea group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 18: 69-78 (page 71, Key to Nearctic fauna (sanguinea-group))
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 143, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1911c. Three formicid names which have been overlooked. Science (N. Y.) (n.s.) 33: 858-860 (page 860, Formica senior synonym of Formicina)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1911g. A list of the type species of the genera and subgenera of Formicidae. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 21: 157-175 (page 164, Formica senior synonym of Formicina)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1915i [1914]. The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schr. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsb. 55: 1-142 (page 120, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 699, Formica senior synonym of Raptiformica and Serviformica (footnote); Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)