Formica truncorum

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Formica truncorum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Formica
Species: F. truncorum
Binomial name
Formica truncorum
Fabricius, 1804

Formica truncorum casent0173144 profile 1.jpg

Formica truncorum casent0173144 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels




Large workers with head, alitrunk and base of first gaster tergite bright yellowish red, gaster greyish brown covered with long pubescence; smaller workers are usually darker but never with clearly marked black patches as in Formica pratensis. Eyes, occiput, genae, gula, scapes and tibiae as well as whole body covered in short erect hairs. Frons with large shallow punctures; frontal triangle shining without punctures or sculpture. Funiculus in larger workers slender with segments two and three twice as long as wide. Lateral clypeal pits deep and rounded. Length: 3.5-9.0 mm (Collingwood 1979).


Jura Alps to North Japan, Italy to North Norway (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Oriental Region: India.
Palaearctic Region: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, China (type locality), Croatia, Czech Republic, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Denmark, Estonia, Finland (type locality), Germany (type locality), Hungary, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation (type locality), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland (type locality), Ukraine.

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Formica truncorum for further details


Collingwood (1979) - This species has large spreading colonies among stones or in tree stumps with loose surface leaf litter sometimes built into a shallow loose mound. This is an aggressive acid squirting species found at the borders of woodland and in stony banks and often particularly abundant on offshore islands. F. truncorum is normally polygynous, sometimes with many small dark headed queens. New colonies may be formed by nest splitting or by the adoption of single large red headed queens by Formica fusca and allied species. Males and queens occur in July and August, latter than with most members of the F. rufa group.



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • truncorum. Formica truncorum Fabricius, 1804: 403 (q.) CZECHOSLOVAKIA. Subspecies of rufa: Emery & Forel, 1879: 450; Santschi, 1925g: 351; Karavaiev, 1936: 247. Status as species: Bondroit, 1917a: 174; Stitz, 1939: 344; Novak & Sadil, 1941: 105; Holgersen, 1942: 13; Dlussky, 1967a: 81; Tarbinsky, 1976: 192; Kutter, 1977c: 274; Gösswald, 1989: 21; Kupyanskaya, 1990: 192; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 270. Senior synonym of truncicola: Roger, 1863b: 13; Bondroit, 1918: 60; Dlussky, 1967a: 81; Radchenko, 2007: 36; of truncicolopratensis: Dlussky, 1967a: 81; Bernard, 1967: 307; of menozzii, rufotruncicola, staegeri and material of the unavailable name stitzi referred here: Dlussky, 1967a: 81. Current subspecies: nominal plus finzii, frontalis.
  • truncicola. Formica truncicola Nylander, 1846a: 907 (w.q.) FINLAND. Nylander, 1849: 29 (m.). Subspecies of rufa: Forel, 1874: 52; André, 1903: 128; Ruzsky, 1905b: 330; Wheeler, W.M. 1908g: 406; Emery, 1909b: 187; Forel, 1915d: 57; Emery, 1916b: 256; Santschi, 1925f: 96. Status as species: Bingham, 1903: 334; Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 434. Senior synonym of simulata: Forel, 1894c: 403. Junior synonym of truncorum: Roger, 1863b: 13; Bondroit, 1918: 60; Emery, 1925b: 255; Bernard, 1967: 307; Dlussky, 1967a: 81; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 174; Tarbinsky, 1976: 192; Kutter, 1977c: 274; Radchenko, 2007: 36.
  • truncicolopratensis. Formica rufa var. truncicolopratensis Forel, 1874: 53 (w.q.m.) SWITZERLAND. Subspecies of pratensis: Dalla Torre, 1893: 205; of rufa: Karavaiev, 1912b: 589; of truncorum: Stitz, 1939: 346; Holgersen, 1942: 14. Raised to species: Bondroit, 1918: 61. Junior synonym of truncorum: Bernard, 1967: 307; Dlussky, 1967a: 81; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 174.
  • simulata. Formica simulata Smith, F. 1878b: 10 (w.) CHINA. Junior synonym of truncicola: Forel, 1894c: 403.
  • rufotruncicola. Formica rufa var. rufotruncicola Ruzsky, 1896: 68 (w.) RUSSIA. [First available use of Formica rufa subsp. pratensis form. rufotruncicola Ruzsky, 1895: 11; unavailable name.] Junior synonym of truncorum: Dlussky, 1967a: 81.
  • menozzii. Formica truncorum var. menozzii Stitz, 1939: 347 (w.) GERMANY. [First available use of Formica rufa subsp. truncicola var. menozzii Krausse, 1926c: 336; unavailable name. Note: truncicola is misspelled aruncicola in this paper.] Junior synonym of truncorum: Dlussky, 1967a: 81.
  • staegeri. Formica truncorum var. staegeri Stitz, 1939: 347 (w.) GERMANY. [First available use of Formica rufa subsp. truncicola ab. staegeri Krausse, 1926d: 264; unavailable name.] Subspecies of truncorum: Betrem, 1960b: 76. Junior synonym of truncorum: Dlussky, 1967a: 81; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971: 174.



The following references are based on the 2007 CD version of the New General Catalogue.

  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 270, Status as species)
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 307, Senior synonym of truncicolopratensis)
  • Bondroit, J. 1917a. Notes sur quelques Formicidae de France (Hym.). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1917: 174-177 (page 174, Status as species)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 60, Senior synonym of truncicola)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1967a. Ants of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, g. Formica). Moskva: Nauka Publishing House, 236 pp. (page 81, Status as species)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1967a. Ants of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, g. Formica). Moskva: Nauka Publishing House, 236 pp. (page 81, Senior synonym of truncicola)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1967a. Ants of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, g. Formica). Moskva: Nauka Publishing House, 236 pp. (page 81, Senior synonym of truncicolopratensis)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1967a. Ants of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, g. Formica). Moskva: Nauka Publishing House, 236 pp. (page 81, Senior synonym of menozzii, rufotruncicola, staegeri, stitzi)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 450, Subspecies/race of rufa)
  • Fabricius, J. C. 1804. Systema Piezatorum secundum ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Brunswick: C. Reichard, xiv + 15-439 + 30 pp. (page 403, queen described)
  • Gösswald, K. 1989. Die Waldameise. Band 1. Biologische Grundlagen, Ökologie und Verhalten. Wiesbaden: AULA-Verlag, xi + 660 pp. (page 21, Status as species)
  • Holgersen, H. 1942b. Ants of northern Norway (Hym., Form.). Tromso Mus. Årsh. 63(2 2: 1-34 (page 13, Status as species)
  • Karavaiev, V. 1936. The fauna of the family Formicidae (ants) of the Ukraine. Part II (conclusion). Tr. Inst. Zool. Biol. Ukr. Akad. Nauk Ser. 1 Pr. Syst. Faun. 1936: 161-316 (page 247, Subspecies/race of rufa)
  • Kupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. (page 192, Status as species)
  • Kutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 274, Status as species)
  • Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomol. Listy 4: 65-115 (page 1941, Status as species)
  • Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 13, Senior synonym of truncicola)
  • Santschi, F. 1925g. Fourmis d'Espagne et autres espèces paléarctiques (Hymenopt.). EOS. Rev. Esp. Entomol. 1: 339-360 (page 351, Subspecies/race of rufa)
  • Stitz, H. 1939. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. 37. Theil. Hautflüger oder Hymenoptera. I: Ameisen oder Formicidae. Jena: G. Fischer, 428 pp. (page 344, Status as species)
  • Tarbinsky, Y. S. 1976. The ants of Kirghizia. Frunze: Ilim, 217 pp. (page 192, Status as species)

Additional References

  • Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomol. Scand. 8:1-174.
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