Gnamptogenys binghamii

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Gnamptogenys binghamii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ectatomminae
Tribe: Ectatommini
Genus: Gnamptogenys
Species: G. binghamii
Binomial name
Gnamptogenys binghamii
(Forel, 1900)

Gnamptogenys-binghamiiL2.jpg

Gnamptogenys-binghamiiD2.jpg

Synonyms

This species has the largest distribution range of any Gnamptogenys species.

Photo Gallery

  • Gnamptogenys binghamii worker from Kerala, India. Photo by Kalesh Sadasivan.‎
  • Gnamptogenys binghamii colony from Kerala, India. Photo by Kalesh Sadasivan.‎
  • Gnamptogenys binghamii workers, larvae and pupae, India. Photo by Kalesh Sadasivan.

Identification

Lattke (2004) - Head subquadrate in frontal view, lateral margins broadly convex and subparallel, anterior margin of clypeal lamella with anteromedian lobe convex to bluntly pointed; occipital lobes small or obsolescent. Mesosoma with broadly convex dorsal margins in lateral view, declivitous margin concave; petiolar node with evenly convex dorsal margin in lateral view; ventral petiolar process subquadrate to triangular with posterior angle. Also see the nomenclature section below.

Distribution

Lattke (2004) - G. binghamii is the most widely distributed species, found from India to Papua New Guinea, as well as in the Philippines.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines.
Oriental Region: India, Laos, Myanmar (type locality), Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China.

Check distribution from AntMaps.

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Gnamptogenys binghamii for further details

Habitat

Lattke (2004) - Habitat labels indicate that G. binghamii mostly inhabits mesic forested areas, from lowlands to about 1500m, including dipterocarp-mixed forests and pine-oak forest in northern Thailand.

Biology

Not much is known about the the biology of Gnamptogenys binghamii. We can speculate that the biology of this species is similar to other species of the genus. Gnamptogenys are predatory ponerine ants that inhabit tropical and subtropical mesic forests. Nesting is typically at ground level in rotten wood or leaf litter. Some exceptions include species that are arboreal, a dry forest species and species that nests in sandy savannahs. Colony size tends to be, at most, in the hundreds. Queens are the reproductives in most species. Worker reproduction is known from a few species in Southeastern Asia. Generalist predation is the primary foraging/dietary strategy. Specialization on specific groups (millipedes, beetles, other ants) has developed in a few species.

Castes

Worker

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • binghamii. Ectatomma (Stictoponera) binghamii Forel, 1900d: 317 (w.) MYANMAR. Viehmeyer, 1916a: 112 (q.m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1976a: 43 (l.); Imai, Brown, et al. 1984: 67 (k.). Combination in Stictoponera: Emery, 1911d: 47; in Gnamptogenys: Brown, 1958g: 227. Senior synonym of borneensis: Brown, 1954h: 5. See also: Lattke, 2004: 86.
  • borneensis. Stictoponera borneensis Emery, 1900d: 662 (footnote) (w.) BORNEO. Junior synonym of binghamii: Brown, 1954h: 5.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Lattke (2004) - Most specimens studied fall into two allopatric morphotypes. Larger specimens have abundant strigulae on the scapes, a convex anteromedian clypeal margin, propodeal denticles with parallel sides, slightly arched and basally bent metacoxal teeth, and smooth cuticle on the dorsoposterior margin of the fourth abdominal tergite. They are found from western Malaysia to Borneo and into the Philippines. Smaller forms bear more resemblance to the syntypes of G. binghamii (especially those from Kottiyor, India, [MCZC]) and tend to have less strigulate scapes, a narrow posterior band of striae on the fourth abdominal tergite, triangular propodeal denticles, straight metacoxal teeth, and the clypeal lamella produced anteromedially as a blunt denticle or angle. This smaller form is found from India to Thailand, with a single specimen recorded from Borneo. The large eastern forms have smaller eyes than the smaller-bodied western populations. Besides these two morphotypes, there are a few specimens from Thailand representing intermediate forms and a nest series of small forms from Borneo with a smooth posterior margin on the fourth abdominal dorsum, strigulose scapes, and a clypeal lamella with an anteromedian point. Specimens from the Philippines and New Guinea have a larger degree of smooth cuticle on the petiolar node and propodeal dorsum, including the fourth abdominal sternite. They may also have a triangular subpetiolar process without a posterior angle.

The illustration of G. binghamii in Tang et al. (1995:28) is not G. binghamii but could be a member of the taivanensis group based on the compressed petiolar node. Gnamptogenys crassicornis (of the coxalis group) could be confused with G. binghamii, but G. crassicornis has smaller eyes, a more flattened petiolar dorsum when seen laterally, strigulae on most of the fourth abdominal tergite in lateral view, and antennal segments 3-4 longer than wide. In G. binghamii the fourth abdominal tergite when seen dorsally in full-length view has evenly convex lateral margins that gradually converge with each other posterad; in G. crassicornis the tergite is roughly funnel shaped with the anterolateral margins abruptly converging for a short distance before gradually converging posterad. Wheeler and Wheeler (1976:43) described larvae of G. binghamii from Sulawesi and Imai et al. (1984) described the karyotype. Viehmeyer (1916:112) described the queen and male of G. binghamii, though the male probably represents a different species. A single male from Singapore (H. Overbeck leg) in the [MHNG] is labeled as a cotype of Stictoponera binghamii, yet Forel (1900) described the species from workers only. This male has abundant rugosities on the postpetiolar tergite, fine strigulae on the fourth abdominal tergite, and a triangular subpetiolar process, all characters that are not found on workers associated with G. binghamii males.

Description

Worker

Lattke 2004 Gnamptogenys fig 16-18

Lattke (2004) - Metrics (n = 22): HL 1.05-1.35, HW 0.86-1.07, ML 0.54-0.65, SL 0.78-1.11, ED 0.16-0.26, WL 1.39-1.78 mm. CI 0.76-0.88, SI 0.88-1.05, MI 0.55-0.65, OI 0.17-0.28. Head subquadrate in frontal view, lateral margins broadly convex and subparallel, anterior margin of clypeal lamella with anteromedian convex to bluntly pointed lobe; frons rugulose-punctate with fine striae on transverse arcs between punctae; clypeus longitudinally strigulose, with strigulae partially extending onto lamella; scape varies from mostly smooth to mostly strigulose; occipital lobes small, occipital lamella well developed, convex to slightly angular at ends.

Mesosoma with broadly convex dorsal margin in lateral view; pronotum with lamellate humeral angle; mesosomal dorsum foveolate with longitudinal median smooth area extending from posterior pronotum to mesonotum; propodeal dorsum densely foveolate, side mostly foveolate, propodeal declivity concave to convex in lateral view, propodeal declivity mostly smooth; propodeal denticles low, triangular or subcylindrical. Dorsal margin of petiolar node usually evenly convex in lateral view, dorsal margin varies from dome shaped to slightly flattened dorsally; dorsum usually densely foveolate; ventral process subquadrate to triangular, usually with posterior angle; postpetiolar dorsum punctate or foveolate, with posterior band of narrow strigulae; sternum with transverse strigulae; dorsum of abdominal segment 4 mostly smooth with scattered punctulae or punctae, depressions denser and deeper on sides, small strigulose area occasionally present on anterolateral corner, sternum strigulose. Fore coxa mostly smooth anterad in lateral view and transversely strigulose posterad; fore tarsus opposite strigil with single seta followed apically by row of slenderer setae; metacoxal tooth relatively straight. Dorsum of thorax and abdominal segments 1-4 with scattered erect to subdecumbent hairs. Body color ranging from dark brown to ferruginous; mandibles, antennae, legs lighter colored.

Queen

Lattke (2004) - Metrics (n = 1): HL 1.46, HW 1.13, ML 0.75, SL 1.20, ED 0.28, WL 2.07 mm. CI 0.77, SI 1.06, MI 0.66, OI 0.25. Pronotum foveolate; mesopleuron foveolate with low longitudinal striae; mesonotum with scattered punctae and low longitudinal undulations, propodeal dorsum densely foveolate.

Male

Lattke (2004) - Metrics (n = 1): HL 0.93, HW 0.82, ML 0.52, SL 0.30, ED 0.33, WL 1.73 mm. CI 0.88, SI 0.37, MI 0.63, OI 0.40. Frons strigulose, becoming irregularly areolate laterally; with longitudinal crest extending from posterior margin of clypeus to anterior margin of median ocellus, clypeus mostly smooth with few longitudinal strigulae, anterior margin of clypeal lamella forming blunt obtuse angle. Pronotum foveolate; mesonotum mostly smooth with few scattered foveolae; mesopleuron mostly smooth with scattered foveolae; metapleuron mostly rugulose; propodeal dorsum areolate-rugulose. Postpetiole mostly smooth with scattered foveolae and low longitudinal strigulae; fourth abdominal tergite smooth.

Type Material

Lattke (2004) - Syntype workers: Burma [Myanmar] (Bingham) (MHNG) [Examined].

Stictoponera borneensis Emery, 1900b:662. Holotype worker by monotypy: Sarawak(MCSN) [Not examined]. Synonymy by Brown, 1954b:5.

References

  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1954h. A review of the coxalis group of the ant genus Stictoponera Mayr. Breviora 34: 1-10 PDF
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1958g. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. II. Tribe Ectatommini (Hymenoptera). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 118: 173-362 (page 227, Combination in Gnamptogenys)
  • Emery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125 (page 47, Combination in Stictoponera)
  • Forel, A. 1900f. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part VII. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 303-332 (page 317, worker described)
  • Imai, H. T.; Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kubota, M.; Yong, H.-S.; Tho, Y. P. 1984. Chromosome observations on tropical ants from western Malaysia. II. Annu. Rep. Natl. Inst. Genet. Jpn. 34: 66-69 (page 67, karyotype described)
  • Lattke, J. E. 2004. A Taxonomic Revision and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Ant Genus Gnamptogenys Roger in Southeast Asia and Australasia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). University of California Publications in Entomology 122: 1-266 (page 86, fig. 16 worker, queen, male described)
  • Tang, J., S. Li, E. Huang, B. Zhang, and Y. Chen. 1995. Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Economic Insect Fauna of China, 47:1-134.
  • Viehmeyer, H. 1916a [1915]. Ameisen von Singapore. Beobachtet und gesammelt von H. Overbeck. Arch. Naturgesch. (A) 81(8): 108-168 (page 112, queen, male described)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976a. Supplementary studies on ant larvae: Ponerinae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 102: 41-64 (page 43, larva described)