| Hypoponera confinis|
In India, this species seems to be widespread but restricted to the north. In non-forested habitats the species was found under small stones and in soil core samples; although in forested habitat this species was found in leaf litter samples. (Bharti et al. 2015)
Bharti et al. (2015) - Hypoponera aitkenii and Hypoponera wroughtonii are characterized by smooth and shiny cinctus of the second gastral tergite while H. confinis is characterized by cinctus of second gastral tergite crowded with cross ribs. In addition H. confinis is always yellow to light brown yellow and funiculus is not incrassate towards apex whilst H. aitkenii and H. wroughtonii are brown and funiculus is incrassate towards apex.
Keys including this Species
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Indo-Australian Region: Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), New Guinea, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga.
Oriental Region: Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka (type locality).
Palaearctic Region: China.
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Distribution based on specimens
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- confinis. Ponera confinis Roger, 1860: 284 (w.) SRI LANKA. Forel, 1900d: 327 (q.); Imai, Kubota, et al. 1985: 47 (k.). Combination in Hypoponera: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 26. Senior synonym of nautarum: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 26. Current subspecies: nominal plus epinotalis, javana, singaporensis. See also: Bingham, 1903: 91.
- nautarum. Ponera convexiuscula var. nautarum Santschi, 1938b: 79 (w.q.) SAMOA. [First available use of Ponera trigona st. convexiuscula var. nautarum Santschi, 1920g: 180; unavailable name.] Junior synonym of confinis: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 26.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Bharti et al. (2015) - HL 0.51-0.56, HW 0.40-0.44, HS 0.45-0.50, SL 0.36-0.40, PrW 0.29-0.33, WL 0.61-0.70, HFL 0.36-0.41, PeNL 0.12-0.14, PeH 0.30-0.33, PeNW 0.22-0.24, PeS 0.21-0.23, CI 78-82, SI 89-93, PeNI 68-75, LPeI 38-43, DPeI 160-191.
Eyes vestigial, usually represented by a small, black spot; sometimes depigmented, which appears to be the remnant of a single ommatidium. In full-face view apex of scape, when laid straight back from its insertion, just fails to reach, or just touches, the midpoint of the posterior margin; SI 89-93. Mid-dorsal longitudinal impression on head terminates immediately behind the frontal lobes and does not extend to the midlength of the vertex or beyond. Punctulate sculpture of cephalic dorsum extremely fine and superficial, but head more densely sculptured than pronotal dorsum. Lateroventral surfaces of head with extremely feeble punctate sculpture, merely of separated small superficial punctures on an otherwise smooth surface. Metanotal groove conspicuously incised across dorsum of mesosoma; mesonotum with a well-defined posterior margin. Mesonotal-mesopleural suture present. Propodeal declivity bluntly rounded into the sides, without sharp marginations or carinae. Mesopleuron smooth and shining. Petiole in profile with anterior and posterior faces somewhat convergent dorsally; dorsal surface broadly convex. Subpetiolar process with a roughly rounded lobe, without angles anteriorly or posteriorly. Maximum width of first gastral tergite in dorsal view slightly less than the width of the second tergite at its midlength. Base of cinctus of second gastral tergite with strong, dense cross-ribs. Post-tergite of second gastral segment, from posterior margin of cinctus to apex, slightly broader than long. Disc of second gastral tergite shallowly punctate. With first gastral segment in profile the dorsum with sparse short standing setae. Full adult colour light yellowish brown.
Bharti et al. (2015) - HL 0.57-0.60, HW 0.48- 0.50, HS 0.52-0.55, SL 0.42-0.45, PrW 0.40-0.43, WL 0.80-0.86, HFL 0.42-0.47, PeNL 0.13-0.14, PeH 0.36-0.37, PeNW 0.26-0.27, PeS 0.24-0.25, CI 83-84, SI 74-90, PeNI 63-66, LPeI 37-38, DPeI 196-200 (3 measured).
Characters as in worker, with modifications expected for caste and the following differences: Eyes with short setae projecting between the ommatidia. Punctulate sculpture more pronounced, in profile petiole relatively shorter than her workers.
Bharti et al. (2015) - HL 0.45-0.48, HW 0.44- 0.48, HS 0.45-0.48, SL 0.11-0.12, WL 0.78-0.84, HFL 0.54-0.62, PeNL 0.13-0.14, PeH 0.36-0.37, PeNW 0.26-0.27, PeS 0.25-0.26, CI 98-100, SI 24-25, LPeI 36-38, DPeI 193-200 (4 measured).
Head almost as broad as long, including the large compound eyes. Short setae project between the ommatidia. Ocelli placed closely, shortest distance in between not longer than their diameter. Mandibles reduced, narrow, with parallel sides, apex simple and acute; basal cavity visible in full-face view. Antenna filiform. Clypeus entire and convex. Subpetiolar process an elongate low lobe. Base of cinctus of second gastral tergite without cross-ribs. Sculpture feebler than in corresponding workers. Colour light yellow.
- Bharti, H., Akbar, S.A., Wachkoo, A.A. and Singh, J. 2015. Taxonomic studies on ant genus Hypoponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) from India. Asian Myrmecology. 7:37-51.
- Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. (page 91, see also)
- Forel, A. 1900f. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part VII. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 303-332 (page 327, queen described)
- Imai, H. T.; Kubota, M.; Brown, W. L., Jr.; Ihara, M.; Tohari, M.; Pranata, R. I. 1985. Chromosome observations on tropical ants from Indonesia. Annu. Rep. Natl. Inst. Genet. Jpn. 35: 46-48 (page 47, karyotype described)
- Roger, J. 1860. Die Ponera-artigen Ameisen. Berl. Entomol. Z. 4: 278-312 (page 284, worker described)
- Wilson, E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967b. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pac. Insects Monogr. 14: 1-109 (page 26, Combination in Hypoponera, and senior synonym of nautarum)