Identification resources for Neotropical Ants

AntWiki - Where Ant Biologists Share Their Knowledge
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Related information:

Key to Subfamilies

Key to subfamilies of the Neotropical region

Keys to Genera

Subfamilies with just one genus present:

Work if progress for:

Keys to genera for the rest:

Acanthognathus

Genus endemic to this region.

Antwiki key is created from Galvis & Fernández (2009)[1] which modifies Brown & Kempf (1969)[2] No new species has been described since then.

Keys to Neotropical Acanthognathus Species

Acanthoponera

Genus endemic to this region

Jimenez et al (2008)[3] offers a tentative key to all Neotropical species (pgs. 111, in Spanish).


Acanthostichus

The genus was revised by McKay (1996)[4] and is still valid, though it doesn't include neither Acanthostichus emmae nor Acanthostichus longinodis.

Antwiki key is based in that reference

Keys to Neotropical Acanthostichus Species

Acromyrmex

No recent revision is available, although some local keys are available:


Acropyga

Revised by LaPolla (2004) [8]

Antwiki keys are based in that reference and valid

Keys to Neotropical Acropyga Species

Adelomyrmex

This key is based on: Longino (2012)[9] and contains only species known from the mainland Americas. Species from Melanesia and elsewhere, including a species from Isla del Coco, are not included.

Keys to Neotropical Adelomyrmex Species

Allomerus

Genus endemic to this region

Fernández (2007)[10] revises the genus. No new species has been described since then.

Keys to Neotropical Allomerus Species

Amyrmex

Genus endemic to this region with only one species: Amyrmex golbachi


Anillidris

Genus endemic to this region with only one species: Anillidris bruchi


Anochetus

Jimenez et al (2008)[11] offers a key to all Neotropical species (pgs. 126-128, in Spanish) except the recently described Anochetus chocoensis, Anochetus hohenbergiae and Anochetus miserabilis

Antwiki key is based on Brown (1978)[12]. This key is outdated as since Brown’s revision (1978), eleven additional Neotropical species have been described: eight fossils species from Dominican Amber (Anochetus ambiguus, Anochetus brevidentatus, Anochetus conisquamis, Anochetus corayi, Anochetus dubius, Anochetus exstinctus, Anochetus intermedius, Anochetus lucidus); two species from the mountains west of Cali, Colombia (Anochetus elegans, Anochetus vallensis); another colombian species (Anochetus chocoensis), an arborean Brazilian species (Anochetus hohenbergiae) and a species associated with leaf-cutter ants in Paraguay and Argentina (Anochetus miserabilis)

Keys to Neotropical Anochetus Species

Anoplolepis

Only one tramp species present in this region: Anoplolepis gracilipes


Aphaenogaster

No revision is available for this genus in the Neotropical Region There are 15 species cited for the Neotropical Region, but only four are cited out of Mexico:

Logino & Cover (2004)[13] revise the Aphaenogaster phalangium complex, endemic to Central America

Keys to Neotropical Aphaenogaster Species

Apterostigma

Lattke (1997)[14] revises the genus. One species has been described for the region since then: Apterostigma megacephala


Asphinctanilloides

Genus endemic to this region

Revised in Brandao et al (1999)[15]. No species have been described since then.

Keys to Neotropical Asphinctanilloides Species

Atta

Borgmeier (1965)[16] revises the genus. His key is still useful, as it only misses Atta cubana, described in 1995.

Other useful local key for Colombia is *Fernandez et al (2015)[17]


Azteca

Genus endemic to this region

Although no global revision has been done yet, there are some local revision as Longino (2007) [18] for Costa Rica and the aurita group

Keys to Neotropical Azteca Species

Bariamyrma

Genus endemic to this region with only one species Bariamyrma hispidula


Basiceros

Genus endemic to this region Feitosa et al (2007) [19] revises the genus. The key is still valid as no new species has been described since then.

Keys to Neotropical Basiceros Species

Belonopelta

Genus endemic to this region

Jimenez et al (2008)[20] offers a key to the two Neotropical species (pgs. 136, in Spanish)


Blepharidatta

Genus endemic to this region

Revised by Brandao et al (2015)[21].

Antwiki key is based on that reference and covers all the described species

Keys to Neotropical Blepharidatta Species

Bothriomyrmex

Only one species present in this region: Bothriomyrmex paradoxus


Brachymyrmex

No genus revision is available, although some recent partial revisionary studies exists:

  • Ortiz & Fernández (2014) [22] for the five species with tumuliform metathoracic spiracles

Keys to Neotropical Brachymyrmex Species

Camponotus

Extremely complex genus, with more than 450 species present. There are no available revision for the genus. There are some unpublished keys by Mr. and Mrs. MacKay that can be really helpful: Neartic Camponotus Keys Some revisionary works have been published, covering subgenera or species groups:

Keys to Neotropical Camponotus Species

Cardiocondyla

All the species cited in the Neotropical region are tramp species and have been reported from the Carribean area


Carebara

Fernández (2004)[24] revises the American species. Two new species (Carebara arabara, Carebara coqueta) have been added since then.


Centromyrmex

Genus revised by Kempf (1967) [25]. Jimenez et al (2008)[26] offers the same key translated into Spanish (pgs. 138)

Antwiki keys are based in that reference and cover all the species for the genus

Keys to Neotropical Centromyrmex Species

Cephalotes

de Andrade & Baroni Urbani (1999) revise the genus [27].

Antwiki keys are updated based on that reference, adding Cephalotes specularis, described in 2014

Keys to Neotropical Cephalotes Species

Cerapachys

The last availble revision of the genus is Brown (1975)[28]. The keys for the Neotropical region are still valid as no new species have been described since then.


Cheliomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region

Watkins (1976)[29] offers a key to all species, both soldiers and males, which are still valid.


Condylodon

Genus endemic to this region with only one species: Condylodon audouini


Crematogaster

There is no recent revision for this hyperdiverse genus in the Neotropic Region. Some keys for local faunas are available, as:

  • Longino (2003)[30]: Costa Rica


Cryptomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region The genus and the two species have been defined by Fernández (2004)[31]

Antwiki key covers all the described species.

Keys to Neotropical Cryptomyrmex Species

Cryptopone

MacKay & Mackay (2010)[32] revises the genus Pachycondyla for the Americas and covers all the Neotropical species.

The Neotropical Cryptopone species are treated as the ochracea species group in that publication (Couplets 2-4 in MacKay's key).


Cyatta

Genus endemic to this region, with only one species: Cyatta abscondita


Cylindromyrmex

Genus endemic to this region

The last availble revision of the genus is Brown (1975)[33].

Antwiki key is based in that reference and covers all the described species except Cylindromyrmex escobari, described in 1998.

Keys to Neotropical Cylindromyrmex Species

Cyphomyrmex

Kempf (1962)[34] divides the genus in two species groups: strigatus group and rimosus group.

The revised species groups are:


Daceton

Genus endemic to this region

Keys to Neotropical Daceton Species

Diaphoromyrma

Genus endemic to this region with one species described: Diaphoromyrma sofiae


Dinoponera

Genus endemic to this region

Lenhart et al (2013)[38] revise the genus and offer keys valid for all described species.

Antwiki keys are based in that reference

Keys to Neotropical Dinoponera Species

Discothyrea

Jimenez et al (2008)[39] offers a key to Colombian species, covering the Neotropical species but Discothyrea icta, Discothyrea isthmica, Discothyrea soesilae and Discothyrea testacea (pgs. 223, in Spanish)


Dolichoderus

MacKay (1993)[40] revises the genus for the Neotropical region. One species has been described since then (Dolichoderus tridentanodus), from Mexico


Dorymyrmex

No global revision is availble for the genus, though some local keys are available:


Eciton

Genus endemic to this region

Watkins (1976)[43] offers a key to all species, both soldiers and males, which are still valid.

The genus is in need of a revision


Ectatomma

Genus endemic to this region

Jimenez et al (2008)[44] offers a key (pgs. 56-59, in Spanish) to all Neotropical species except: Ectatomma parasiticum, Ectatomma suzanae, and Ectatomma vizottoi


Eurhopalothrix

This worker key is based on Longino (2013)[45] and covers the Americas. No new species has been described since then.

Keys to Neotropical Eurhopalothrix Species

Forelius

Cuezzo (2000)[46] revises the genus. Species described for the Neotropical Region since then: Forelius damiani


Formica

All the Neotropical species are cited for Mexico, except Formica retecta, also cited for Honduras


Gigantiops

Genus endemic to this region with only one species described: Gigantiops destructor


Gnamptogenys

Lattke (2007)[47] offers a key to the Neotropical species. Species described since then and not included in the key: Gnamptogenys andersoni, Gnamptogenys aspera, Gnamptogenys auricula, Gnamptogenys biquetra and Gnamptogenys dichotoma

Keys to Neotropical Gnamptogenys Species

Gracilidris

Genus endemic to this region with one species described: Gracilidris pombero


Heteroponera

Jimenez et al (2008)[48] offers a key to all Neotropical species (pgs. 113-114, in Spanish) except Heteroponera panamensis


Hylomyrma

Genus endemic to this region

Kempf (1973)[49] revises the genus. His key cover all the species except Hylomyrma reginae, described in 1977

Keys to Neotropical Hylomyrma Subgenera or Species Groups


Hypoponera

No revision is available for the Neotropical species


Kalathomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region with one species described: Kalathomyrmex emeryi


Kempfidris

Genus endemic to this region with one species described: Kempfidris inusualis


Labidus

Watkins (1976)[50] offers a key to all species, both soldiers and males, which are still valid.


Lachnomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region

Feitosa & Brandao (2008)[51] revise the genus.

Antwiki key is based in that reference

Keys to Neotropical Lachnomyrmex Species

Lasiophanes

Genus endemic to this region

Snelling & Hunt (1975)[52] offers a key that covers all the valid species.


Lasius

All the cited species for the Neotropical region are cited from Mexico


Lenomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region

Fernández (2001)[53] offers a key to all Neotropical species (in Spanish), except for Lenomyrmex colwelli, described in 2011


Leptanilloides

Delsinne et al (2015)[54] offers a key that covers the genus.

Antwiki key is based on Borowiec et al (2011)[55]

Keys to Neotropical Leptanilloides Species

Leptogenys

No recent revision is available

Keys to Neotropical Leptogenys Species

Leptothorax

Two species have been cited from Mexico


Linepithema

Genus revised by Wild (2007)[56]

Keys to Neotropical Linepithema Species

Liometopum

Antwiki key for the US covers the species cited for the Neotropical region (Mexico). This key is based on Del Toro & Pacheco (2009)[57]

Keys to Neotropical Liometopum Species

Martialis

Genus endemic to this region with one species described: Martialis heureka


Mayaponera

Genus endemic to this region with one species described: Mayaponera constricta. MacKay & Mackay (2010)[58] treates this species under the genus Pachycondyla forming the constricta complex.


Megalomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region

Brandao (1990)[59] revises the genus and offers a key and arranges the genus in species-groups. As several new species have been described, the key is outdated, and should be complemented with Brandao (2003)[60] and the revisonary studies for Central America, being the latest Boudinot et al (2013)[61]

Keys to Neotropical Megalomyrmex Species

Monomorium

Fernández (2007)[62] offers a useful key for the Neotropical species although misses some of the species cited for the region.


Mycetagroicus

Genus endemic to this region

Brandao et al (2008)[63] offers a key for all the species in the genus

Keys to Neotropical Mycetagroicus Species

Mycetarotes

Genus endemic to this region Mayhé-Nunes (1995)[64] offers a key for the four desribed species (in portuguese)


Mycetophylax

Genus endemic to this region

Klingenberg & Brandão (2009)[65] revise the genus.

Antwiki key is based on that reference

Keys to Neotropical Mycetophylax Species

Mycetosoritis

No recent revision is available for the genus


Mycocepurus

Genus endemic to this region

MacKay et al (2004)[66] offer a key to all the Neotropical species except Mycocepurus castrator, described in 2010.


Myrcidris

Genus endemic to this region with one species decribed: Myrcidris epicharis

Antwiki keys include a non-described species from Guyana

Keys to Neotropical Myrcidris Species

Myrmecina

Two species have been cited from Mexico


Myrmecocystus

Snelling, R. (1976)[67] and Snelling, R. (1982)[68] revises the genus.

All the Neotropical species have been cited from Mexico


Myrmelachista

Genus endemic to this region

No global revision is available, but some local revisions are:

Keys to Neotropical Myrmelachista Species

Myrmica

Three species have been cited from Mexico and one from Brazil


Myrmicocrypta

There is no revision available for the genus


Neivamyrmex

Watkins (1976)[70] offers a key to species, both soldiers and males, which are outdated, but the most complete till date.

The genus is in dire need of a revision


Neoponera

Most of the species now under this genus were revised by MacKay & Mackay (2010)[71] under the genus Pachycondyla.

The current genus Neoponera comprises the MacKay's species complexes: aenescens, apicalis, crenata, emiliae, foetida, laevigata, rostrata, and the species Neoponera bucki of the stigma complex and Neoponera procidua of the crassinoda complex.

These references cover the whole genus for the Neotropical region

Keys to Neotropical Neoponera Species

Nesomyrmex

No recent revision is availble for this genus


Nomamyrmex

Watkins (1976)[74] offers a key to the two described species, both workers and males, which are still valid.


Novomessor

Antwiki key covers the three species cited for Mexico

Keys to Neotropical Novomessor Species

Nylanderia

No recent revision is available for the Neotropical species


Ochetomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region

Key based on Fernández (2003)[75]

Keys to Neotropical Ochetomyrmex Species

Octostruma

Genus endemic to this region

Longino (2013)[76] revises the genus. Antwiki key is based on that reference

Keys to Neotropical Octostruma Species

Odontomachus

Jimenez et al (2008)[77] offers a key to all Neotropical species (pgs. 151-155, in Spanish) except Odontomachus peruanus


Oxyepoecus

Genus endemic to this region

Albuquerque (2004)[78] and Albuquerque & Brandao (2009)[79] revise the genus and offers a key for all the species discovered til 2009.

Delsinne et al (2011)[80] revises the local fauna for Paraguay, adding two new species.

New species added since then: Oxyepoecus regularis

Antwiki keys are based on those two references

Keys to Neotropical Oxyepoecus Species

Pachycondyla

MacKay & Mackay (2010)[81] revises the genus for the Americas and covers all the Neotropical species. MacKay concept of the genus has now been splitted into the genera Brachyponera, Cryptopone, Hypoponera, Mayaponera, Neoponera, Paltothyreus, Rasopone, and Pachycondyla.

Current Neotropical Pachycondyla is formed by the MacKay's complexes crassinoda (except Neoponera procidua), curiosa, vieirai and the species Pachycondyla lenkoi of the stigma complex.


Paramycetophylax

Genus endemic to this region with one single species described: Paramycetophylax bruchi


Paraponera

Genus endemic to this region with one single species described: Paraponera clavata


Paraprionopelta

Genus endemic to this region with one single species described Paraprionopelta minima


Paratrechina

LaPolla & Fisher (2014)[82] revises the genus.

One tramp species present: Paratrechina longicornis

Keys to Neotropical Paratrechina Species

Perissomyrmex

One species present in the region: Perissomyrmex snyderi


Phalacromyrmex

Genus endemic to this region with one species decribed Phalacromyrmex fugax


Pheidole

Wilson (2003) [83] revises the genus for the Americas. Antwiki keys are based on that reference.

Major contributions have been done since then, as Longiono (2009)[84], adding more than 20 new species.

New species described since then: Pheidole bigote, Pheidole_branstetteri, Pheidole carinote, Pheidole debilis, Pheidole eowilsoni, Pheidole epiphyta, Pheidole fossimandibula, Pheidole funki, Pheidole gymnoceras, Pheidole janzeni, Pheidole karolmorae, Pheidole karolsetosa, Pheidole lagunculinoda, Pheidole leoncortesi, Pheidole mesomontana, Pheidole mutisi, Pheidole neoschultzi, Pheidole pararugiceps, Pheidole phanigaster, Pheidole picobarva, Pheidole purpurea, Pheidole rhinomontana, Pheidole sebofila, Pheidole sparsisculpta, Pheidole synanthropica, Pheidole tenuicephala, Pheidole protaxi

Keys to Neotropical Pheidole Subgenera or Species Groups

Keys to Neotropical Pheidole Species

Plagiolepis

One single species for the region: Plagiolepis alluaudi


Platythyrea

Brown (1975)[85] revises the genus, covering all the species for the region but Platythyrea lenca and Platythyrea prizo.

Jimenez et al (2008)[86] offers the same key translated into Spanish (pgs. 207-208), adding Platythyrea prizo


Pogonomyrmex

Johnson (2015)[87] revises the genus

Keys to Neotropical Pogonomyrmex Subgenera or Species Groups

Keys to Neotropical Pogonomyrmex Species

Polyergus

Trager (2013)[88] revises the genus.

All the Neotropical species are cited from Mexico, and are covered by both keys.

Keys to Neotropical Polyergus Species

Ponera

Only two species have been cited, one from Mexico and one Ponera ruficornis from Brazil. The status of this last species in Ponera is not clear, and should be regarded as an unidentifiable taxon, incertae sedis in Ponera.

Antwiki key covers the cited species

Keys to Neotropical Ponera Species

Prenolepis

All the species for the Neotropical region have been cited for Mexico. Creighton (1950)[89] offers a key to all the species cited except Prenolepis acuminata. No other revision is available.

Some former local keys as Fontenla (2000)[90] for Antillas Islands fall now under the genus Zatania


Prionopelta

Jimenez et al (2008)[91] offers a key to all Neotropical species except Prionopelta marthae (pgs. 48-49, in Spanish)


Probolomyrmex

Jimenez et al (2008)[92] offers a key to all Neotropical species (pgs. 233, in Spanish)


Proceratium

Baroni Urbani & de Andrade (2003)[93] revise the genus. Antwiki key is based in that reference


Procryptocerus

Kempf (1951)[94] revises the genus and offers a key, which is still valid nowadays.

Longino & Snelling (2002)[95] revises the genus for Central America


Protalaridris

Genus endemic to this region with only one species described: Protalaridris armata


Pseudoatta

Genus endemic to this region One species and one subspecies cited from Argentina


Pseudomyrmex

Ward(1989)[96] creates the species groups. The references to the groups are:

  • ferrugineus: Ward(1993)[97]
  • gracilis
  • oculatus: Ward(1989)[98]
  • pallens
  • pallidus
  • sericeus
  • subtilissimus: Ward(1989)[99]
  • tenuis
  • viduus: Ward (1999)[100]
  • Incertae sedis

Some local keys are available, like:


Pseudoponera

MacKay & Mackay (2010)[101] revises the genus Pachycondyla.

The current Neotropical species of the genus Pseudoponera comprises the MacKay's Pachycondyla species complex stigma excluding the species Neoponera bucki and Pachycondyla lenkoi


Rasopone

Genus endemic to this region

MacKay & Mackay (2010)[102] revises the genus Pachycondyla.

The current genus Rasopone comprises the MacKay's Pachycondyla species complexes: arhuaca and ferruginea


Rhopalothrix

Longino & Boudinot (2013)[103] revise the genus

Keys to Neotropical Rhopalothrix Species

Rogeria

Kugler (1994)[104]revises the genus.

Antwiki key is based in that reference.

New species described since then:Rogeria tsumani

Keys to Neotropical Rogeria Species

Sericomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region

The most recent key is provided by Wheeler (1916)[105], outdated


Simopelta

Genus endemic to this region MacKay & Mackay (2008) revise the genus [106]. This key covers all the species but Simopelta anomma

Keys to Neotropical Simopelta Species

Solenopsis

The Neartic species were revised by Pacheco & MacKay (2013)[107]. A new species has been described since then (Solenopsis longicephala[108])

Keys to Neotropical Solenopsis Subgenera or Species Groups

Keys to Neotropical Solenopsis Species

Sphinctomyrmex

Revised by Feitosa et al (2012)[109], no new species has been described.

Keys to Neotropical Sphinctomyrmex Species

Stegomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region

Feitosa et al (2008)[110] revises the genus and offers a key to all species.

Keys to Neotropical Stegomyrmex Species

Stenamma

Branstetter (2013) revises the genus in the Neotropical region[111]


Stigmatomma

Lattke (1991)[112] revises the genus for America. Due to the description of several new species, this key is outdated.

Jimenez et al (2008)[113] offers a key to all Neotropical species (pgs. 44-45, in Spanish). The key is valid for the American species formerly placed in Amblyopone. All the Neotropical species have been transferred to Stigmatomma

Keys to Neotropical Stigmatomma Species

Strumigenys

Bolton (2000)[114] revises the genus. The genus Pyramica has been sinonimized with Strumigenys, so there are two set of keys for this genus.

Longino (2006)[115] completes the key based on former Pyramica species replacing couplets 29 and 30 by the provided to include new species

Sosa Calvo et al (2010)[116] review the genus for Guyana, adding five new species

Lattke & Aguirre (2015)[117] describe two new species from Ecuador

Keys to Neotropical Strumigenys Species

Syllophopsis

Last available revision for the Neotropics is Fernández (2007) (as Monomorium)[118], although misses Syllophopsis sechellensis, tramp species cited from Barbados.


Talaridris

Genus endemic to this region with one species described: Talaridris mandibularis

Tapinoma

No revision is available for the Neotropical region


Tatuidris

Genus endemic to this region with one species described: Tatuidris tatusia


Technomyrmex

Key based in Fernández & Guerrero (2007)[119]. Covers all the Neotropical species

Keys to Neotropical Technomyrmex Species

Temnothorax

MacKay (2000)[120] revises the genus for the Neartic and Neotropical regions.

The species discovered since then are treated in Snelling et al (2014)[121]


Tetramorium

All the species cited for the Neotropics are either tramp species or are restricted to Mexico

Vasquez et al (2011)[122] offers a key for the Tetramorium tortuosum group from the New World


Thaumatomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region.

Jimenez et al (2008)[123] offers a key to all Neotropical species (pgs. 211-212, in Spanish) except Thaumatomyrmex soesilae

Keys to Neotropical Thaumatomyrmex Species

Trachymyrmex

Brandao & Nunes (2007)[124] have confirmed the six species groups defined by Kempf, and splitting the jamaicensis group from the urichi group later on.

Available revisions are as follows

  • Cornetzi
  • Farinosus
  • Iheringi: Mayhé-Nunes & Brandão(2005)[125]
  • Jamaicensis: Mayhé-Nunes & Brandão(2007)[126]
  • Opulentus: Mayhé-Nunes & Brandão(2002)[127]
  • Septentrionalis
  • Urichi

Keys to Neotropical Trachymyrmex Species

Tranopelta

Genus endemic to this region

Fernández (2003)[128] offers a key to the three castes of the two species described.

Keys to Neotropical Tranopelta Species

Trichomyrmex

One introduced species for the region: Trichomyrmex destructor


Tropidomyrmex

Genus endemic to this region with one species described Tropidomyrmex elianae

Typhlomyrmex

Jimenez et al (2008)[129] offers a key to Colombian species (pgs. 250-251, in French), but does not contain Typhlomyrmex clavicornis, Typhlomyrmex foreli and Typhlomyrmex meire

Lacau et al (2004)[130] offer a key that covers all the Neartic species but misses Typhlomyrmex foreli and Typhlomyrmex prolatus

Keys to Neotropical Typhlomyrmex Species

Veromessor

All the Neotropical species have been cited from Mexico

Antwiki key is updated

Keys to Neotropical Veromessor Species

Wasmannia

The key to Wasmannia species based on workers by Longino and Fernández (2007[131]) has been modified by Cuezzo et al. (2015[132]) to include all the described species of Wasmannia (except Wasmannia villosa, which is only known from the queen).

Keys to Neotropical Wasmannia Species

Xenomyrmex

Creighton (1957)[133] is the last available revision for the genus. Offers a key to all species but Xenomyrmex picquarti


Zatania

Genus endemic to this region Key based on LaPolla et al. (2012)[134], covers all the described species till date

Keys to Neotropical Zatania Species

References

  1. Galvis, J. P. & Fernández, F. 2009. Ants of Colombia X. Acanthognathus with the description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Revista Colombiana de Entomología 35 (2): 245-249 PDF
  2. Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kempf, W. W. 1969. A revision of the neotropical dacetine ant genus Acanthognathus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Camb.) 76: 87-109 PDF
  3. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  4. MacKay, W.P. 1996. A revision of the ant genus Acanthostichus. Sociobiology 27:129-179. PDF
  5. Kusnezov, N. 1956a. Claves para la identificación de las hormigas de la fauna argentina. Idia 104- 105: 1-56 PDF
  6. Gonçalves, C. R. 1961. O genero Acromyrmex no Brasil (Hym. Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 4: 113-180 PDF
  7. Fernández, F.; Castro-Huertas, V.; Serna, F. 2015. Hormigas cortadoras de hojas de Colombia: Acromyrmex & Atta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Fauna de Colombia, Monografía No.5. Bogotá D.C., Colombia: Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 350 pp
  8. LaPolla, J.S. 2004a. Acropyga of the world. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 33 (3): 1-130. PDF
  9. Longino, J. T. 2012. A review of the ant genus Adelomyrmex Emery 1897 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Central America. Zootaxa 3456:1-35. PDF
  10. Fernández, F. 2007a. The myrmicine ant genus Allomerus Mayr. Caldasia 29: 159-175. PDF
  11. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  12. Brown, W. L., Jr. 1978c. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section B. Genus Anochetus and bibliography. Studia Entomologica. 20:549-638. PDF
  13. Longino, J.T. & Cover, S. 2004. A revision of the Aphaenogaster phalangium complex. Zootaxa 655: 1-12. PDF
  14. Lattke, J. E. 1997. Revisión del género Apterostigma Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Arq. Zool. (São Paulo) 34: 121-221 PDF
  15. Brandão, C. R. F.; Diniz, J. L. M.; Agosti, D.; Delabie, J. H. C. 1999. Revision of the Neotropical ant subfamily Leptanilloidinae. Syst. Entomol. 24: 17-36 PDF
  16. Borgmeier, T. 1959b. Revision der Gattung Atta Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. (n.s.) 2: 321-390 PDF
  17. Fernández, F.; Castro-Huertas, V.; Serna, F. 2015. Hormigas cortadoras de hojas de Colombia: Acromyrmex & Atta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Fauna de Colombia, Monografía No.5. Bogotá D.C., Colombia: Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 350 pp
  18. Longino, J.T. 2007. A taxonomic review of the genus Azteca in Costa Rica and a global revision of the aurita group. Zootaxa. 1491:1-63. PDF
  19. Feitosa, R. M., C. R. F. Brandão and B. H. Dietz. 2007. Basiceros scambognathus (Brown, 1949) n.comb., with the worker and male descriptions, and a revised generic diagnosis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Papeis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia 47(2): 15-26. PDF
  20. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  21. Brandao, C.R.F., Feitosa, R.M., Diniz, J.L.M. 2015. Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical Myrmicinae ant genus Blepharidatta Wheeler. Zootaxa, 4012, 33–56.
  22. Ortiz, C.M. & Fernández, F. 2014. Brachymyrmex species with tumuliform metathoracic spiracles description of three new species and discussion of dimorphism in the genus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 371, 13-33.
  23. Fernández, F. 2002a. Revisión de las hormigas Camponotus subgénero Dendromyrmex. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 42: 47-101. [14.vi.2002.] PDF
  24. Fernández, F. 2004a. The American species of the myrmicine ant genus Carebara Westwood. Caldasia 26: 191-238. PDF
  25. Kempf, W. W. 1967b [1966]. A synopsis of the Neotropical ants of the genus Centromyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 9: 401-410 PDF
  26. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  27. de Andrade, M. L. & Baroni Urbani, C. 1999. Diversity and adaptation in the ant genus Cephalotes, past and present. Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde Series B (Geolgie and Palaontologie). 271:1-889
  28. Brown, W. L., Jr. 1975. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. V. Ponerinae, tribes Platythyreini, Cerapachyini, Cylindromyrmecini, Acanthostichini, and Aenictogitini. Search Agric. (Ithaca N. Y.) 5(1 1: 1-115] PDF
  29. Watkins, J. F., II. 1976. The identification and distribution of New World army ants (Dorylinae: Formicidae). Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 102 pp. PDF
  30. Longino, J.T. 2003a. The Crematogaster of Costa Rica. Zootaxa 151: 1-150. [5.iii.2003.] PDF
  31. Fernández, F. 2004b. Adelomyrmecini new tribe and Cryptomyrmex new genus of myrmicine ants. Sociobiology 44: 325-335. PDF
  32. MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. 2010. The systematics and biology of the New World ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, xii+642 pp
  33. Brown, W. L., Jr. 1975. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. V. Ponerinae, tribes Platythyreini, Cerapachyini, Cylindromyrmecini, Acanthostichini, and Aenictogitini. Search Agric. (Ithaca N. Y.) 5(1 1: 1-115] PDF
  34. Kempf, W. W. 1962b. Miscellaneous studies on neotropical ants. II. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 5: 1-38 PDF
  35. Kempf, W. W. 1964d. A revision of the Neotropical fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex Mayr. Part I: Group of strigatus Mayr (Hym., Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 7: 1-44 PDF
  36. Kempf, W. W. 1966 [1965]. A revision of the Neotropical fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex Mayr. Part II: Group of rimosus (Spinola) (Hym., Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 8: 161-200 PDF
  37. Snelling, R. R.; Longino, J. T. 1992. Revisionary notes on the fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex, rimosus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Attini). Pp. 479-494 in: Quintero, D., Aiello, A. (eds.) Insects of Panama and Mesoamerica: selected studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, xxii + 692 pp. PDF
  38. Lenhart, P.A., Dash, S.T. & Mackay, W.P. 2013. A revision of the giant Amazonian ants of the genus Dinoponera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 31, 119–164. PDF
  39. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  40. MacKay, W.P. 1993b. A review of the New World ants of the genus Dolichoderus. Sociobiology 22: 1-148. [(31.xii).1993.] PDF
  41. Snelling, R. R.; Hunt, J. H. 1975. The ants of Chile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rev. Chil. Entomol. 9: 63-129 PDF
  42. Cuezzo, F. & Guerrero, R.J. 2011. The ant genus Dorymyrmex Mayr in Colombia. Psyche 2012: 24 pp. Article ID 516058. [doi: 10.1155/2012/516058.] PDF
  43. Watkins, J. F., II. 1976. The identification and distribution of New World army ants (Dorylinae: Formicidae). Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 102 pp. PDF
  44. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  45. Longino J. T. 2013a. A review of the Central American and Caribbean species of the ant genus Eurhopalothrix Brown and Kempf, 1961 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with a key to New World species. Zootaxa. 3693:101-151. PDF
  46. Cuezzo, F. 2000. Revisión del género Forelius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae). Sociobiology 35: 197-275 PDF
  47. Lattke, J.E., Fernández, F. & Palacio, E.E. 2007. Identification of the species of Gnamptogenys Roger in the Americas (pp. 254-270). In Snelling, R.R., Fisher, B.L. & Ward, P.S. (eds). Advances in ant systematics: homage to E.O. Wilson – 50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 690 pp. PDF
  48. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  49. Kempf, W. W. 1973b. A revision of the Neotropical myrmicine ant genus Hylomyrma Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 16: 225-260 PDF
  50. Watkins, J. F., II. 1976. The identification and distribution of New World army ants (Dorylinae: Formicidae). Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 102 pp. PDF
  51. Feitosa, R. M. and C. R. F. Brandão,. 2008. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical myrmicine ant genus Lachnomyrmex Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Zootaxa 1890: 1-49. PDF
  52. Snelling, R. R.; Hunt, J. H. 1975. The ants of Chile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rev. Chil. Entomol. 9: 63-129 PDF
  53. Fernández, F. 2001. Hormigas de Colombia IX: nueva especie de Lenomyrmex. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 27: 201-204. PDF
  54. (*Delsinne, T., Sonet, G. & Donoso, D.A. 2015. Two new species of Leptanilloides Mann, 1823 from the Andes of southern Ecuador. European Journal of Taxonomy 143: 1-35. PDF
  55. Borowiec, M. L.; Longino, J. T. 2011. Three new species and reassessment of the rare Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Leptanilloidinae). ZooKeys 133:19-48. [2011-10-05] PDF
  56. Wild, A. L. 2007a. Taxonomic revision of the ant genus Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 126: 1-159 PDF
  57. Del Toro, I., Pacheco, J.A. & MacKay, W. 2009. Revision of the ant genus Liometopum. Sociobiology 53: 299-369
  58. MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. 2010. The systematics and biology of the New World ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, xii+642 pp
  59. Brandão, C. R. F. 1990b. Systematic revision of the Neotropical ant genus Megalomyrmex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), with the description of thirteen new species. Arq. Zool. (São Paulo) 31: 411-481 PDF
  60. Brandão, C. R. F. 2003. Further revisionary studies on the ant gentus Megalomyrmex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 43: 145-159 PDF
  61. Boudinot, B. E.; Sumnicht, T. P.; Adams, R. M. M. 2013. Central American ants of the genus Megalomyrmex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): six new species and keys to workers and males. Zootaxa 3732:1-82
  62. Fernández, F. 2007b. Two new species of South American Monomorium Mayr with taxonomic notes on the genus (pp. 128-145). In Snelling, R.R., Fisher, B.L. & Ward, P.S. (eds). Advances in ant systematics: homage to E.O. Wilson – 50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 690 pp. PDF
  63. Brandão, C. R. F. and A. J. Mayhé-Nunes. 2008. A new species of the fungus-farming ant genus Mycetagroicus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 52(3): 349-352. PDF
  64. Mayhé-Nunes, A. J. 1995. Sinopse do gênero Mycetarotes (Hym., Formicidae), com a descriça~o de duas especies novas. Bol. Entomol. Venez. (n.s.) 10(2):197-205 PDF
  65. Klingenberg, C. & Brandão, C.R.F. 2009. Revision of the fungus-growing ant genera Mycetophylax Emery and Paramycetophylax Kusnezov rev. stat. and description of Kalathomyrmex n. gen. Zootaxa 2052: 1-31. PDF
  66. Mackay, W. P.; Maes, J.-M.; Fernández, Patricia Rojas; Luna, G. 2004. The ants of North and Central America: the genus Mycocepurus (Hymenoptera : Formicidae). Journal of Insect Science (Tucson) 4(27): 1-7 PDF
  67. Snelling, R. R. 1976. A revision of the honey ants, genus Myrmecocystus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angel. Cty. Sci. Bull. 24: 1-163 PDF
  68. Snelling, R. R. 1982b. A revision of the honey ants, genus Myrmecocystus, first supplement (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 81: 69-86 PDF
  69. Longino, J.T. 2006a. A taxonomic review of the genus Myrmelachista in Costa Rica. Zootaxa 1141: 1-54. PDF
  70. Watkins, J. F., II. 1976. The identification and distribution of New World army ants (Dorylinae: Formicidae). Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 102 pp. PDF
  71. MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. 2010. The systematics and biology of the New World ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, xii+642 pp
  72. Wild, A. L. 2005. Taxonomic revision of the Pachycondyla apicalis species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 834: 1-25. PDF
  73. Fernandes, I.O., De Oliveira, M.L. & Delabie, J.H.C. 2014. Description of two new species in the Neotropical Pachycondyla foetida complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) and taxonomic notes on the genus. Myrmecological News 19, 133-163.
  74. Watkins, J. F., II. 1976. The identification and distribution of New World army ants (Dorylinae: Formicidae). Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 102 pp. PDF
  75. Fernández, F. 2003c. Myrmicine ants of the genera Ochetomyrmex and Tranopelta. Sociobiology 41: 633-661. [(31.xii).2003.] PDF
  76. Longino, J. T. 2013b. A revision of the ant genus Octostruma Forel, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Zootaxa 3699:1-61. [2013-08-09] PDF
  77. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  78. Albuquerque, N. L.; Brandão, C. R. F. 2004. A revision of the Neotropical Solenopsidini ant genus Oxyepoecus Santschi, 1926 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). 1. The vezenyii species-group. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia (Sao Paulo) 44(4): 55-80 PDF
  79. Albuquerque, N. L. de and C. R. F. Brandão. 2009. A revision of the Neotropical Solenopsidini ant genus Oxyepoecus Santschi, 1926 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). 2. Final. Key for species and revision of the rastratus species-group. Papeis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia 49(23): 289-309. PDF
  80. Delsinne, T.D., Mackay, W., Wild, A., Rosin, Y. & Leponce, M. 2011. Distribution and diversity of the cryptic ant genus Oxyepoecus in Paraguay, with descriptions of two new species. Psyche 2012: 8 pp. Article ID 594302. [doi: 10.1155/2012/594302.] PDF
  81. MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. 2010. The systematics and biology of the New World ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, xii+642 pp
  82. *LaPolla, J.S. & Fisher, B.L. 2014. Then there were five: a reexamination of the ant genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 422, 35–48 (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.422.7779)
  83. Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, [ix] + 794 pp.: 794pp
  84. Longino, J.T. 2009. Additions to the taxonomy of New World Pheidole. Zootaxa 2181: 1-90
  85. Brown, W. L., Jr. 1975. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. V. Ponerinae, tribes Platythyreini, Cerapachyini, Cylindromyrmecini, Acanthostichini, and Aenictogitini. Search Agric. (Ithaca N. Y.) 5(1 1: 1-115] PDF
  86. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  87. Johnson, R. A. 2015. A taxonomic revision of South American species of the seed-harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Part I. Zootaxa 4029(1):1-142
  88. Trager, J.C. 2013. Global revision of the dulotic ant genus Polyergus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Formicinae, Formicini). Zootaxa 3722, 501–548.
  89. Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 1-585 PDF
  90. Fontenla, Rizo J. L. 2000a. The genus Prenolepis Mayr, 1861 (Formicidae) in the Greater Antilles, with an outline of phylogenetic relationships. Caribb. J. Sci. 36: 76-86 PDF
  91. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  92. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  93. Baroni Urbani, C., de Andrade, M.L. (2003) The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Monografie, 36, 1–492.
  94. Kempf, W. W. 1951. A taxonomic study on the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rev. Entomol. (Rio J.) 22: 1-244 PDF
  95. Longino, J.T. & Snelling, R.R. 2002. A taxonomic revision of the Procryptocerus of Central America. Contributions in Science 495: 1-30. [22.xi.2002.] PDF
  96. Ward, P. S. 1989a. Systematic studies on pseudomyrmecine ants: revision of the Pseudomyrmex oculatus and P. subtilissimus species groups, with taxonomic comments on other species. Quaest. Entomol. 25: 393-468 PDF
  97. Ward, P. S. 1993. Systematic studies on Pseudomyrmex acacia-ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Pseudomyrmecinae). J. Hym. Res. 2: 117-168 PDF
  98. Ward, P. S. 1989a. Systematic studies on pseudomyrmecine ants: revision of the Pseudomyrmex oculatus and P. subtilissimus species groups, with taxonomic comments on other species. Quaest. Entomol. 25: 393-468 PDF
  99. Ward, P. S. 1989a. Systematic studies on pseudomyrmecine ants: revision of the Pseudomyrmex oculatus and P. subtilissimus species groups, with taxonomic comments on other species. Quaest. Entomol. 25: 393-468 PDF
  100. Ward, P. S. 1999b. Systematics, biogeography and host plant associations of the Pseudomyrmex viduus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Triplaris- and Tachigali-inhabiting ants. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 126: 451-540 PDF
  101. MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. 2010. The systematics and biology of the New World ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, xii+642 pp
  102. MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. 2010. The systematics and biology of the New World ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, xii+642 pp
  103. Longino, J. T.; Boudinot, B. E. 2013. New species of Central American Rhopalothrix Mayr, 1870 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Zootaxa 3616:301-324. [2013-02-21] PDF
  104. Kugler, C. 1994. A revision of the ant genus Rogeria with description of the sting apparatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Hym. Res. 3: 17-89 PDF
  105. Wheeler, W. M. 1916c. Ants collected in British Guiana by the expedition of the American Museum of Natural History during 1911. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 35: 1-14 PDF
  106. MacKay, W.P., MacKay, E.E. 2008. Revision of the ants of the genus Simopelta Mann (pp. 285-328). In Jíminez, E., Fernández, F., Arias, T.M. & Lozano-Zambrano, F.H. (eds). Sistematica, biogeografia y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia: 609 pp. Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota. PDF
  107. Pacheco, J.A. & Mackay, W.P. 2013. The systematics and biology of the New World thief ants of the genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York. 501 pp.
  108. Cuezzo, F. & Fernandez, F. 2015. A remarkable new dimorphic species of Solenopsis from Argentina. Sociobiology, 62, 187-191 (DOI: 10.13102/sociobiology.v62i2.187-191).
  109. Feitosa, R.M., C.R.F. Brandão, F. Fernández and J.C.H. Delabie. 2012. The Ant Genus Sphinctomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Cerapachyinae) in the Neotropical Region, with the Description of Two New Species. Psyche Volume 2012, Article ID 342623, 9 pages PDF
  110. Feitosa, R. M., C. R. F. Brandão and J. L. M. Diniz. 2008. Revisionary studies on the enigmatic Neotropical ant genus Stegomyrmex Emery, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), with the description of two new species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 17(1): 64-82 PDF
  111. Branstetter, M. G. 2013. Revision of the Middle American clade of the ant genus Stenamma Westwood (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae). ZooKeys 295:1-277. [2013-04-24] PDF
  112. Lattke, J. E. 1991d. Studies of neotropical Amblyopone Erichson (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Contr. Sci. (Los Angel.) 428: 1-7 PDF
  113. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  114. Bolton, B. 2000. The ant tribe Dacetini. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute. 65:1-1028.
  115. Longino, J.T. 2006b. New species and nomenclatural changes for the Costa Rican ant fauna. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8: 131-143. PDF
  116. Sosa-Calvo, J., T.R. Schultz, and J.S. LaPolla. 2010. A review of the dacetine ants of Guyana (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research. 19(1):12-43. PDF
  117. Lattke, J.E. & Aguirre, N. 2015. Two new Strumigenys F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) from montane forests of Ecuador. Sociobiology, 62, 175-180 (DOI: 10.13102/sociobiology.v62i2.175-180).
  118. Fernández, F. 2007b. Two new species of South American Monomorium Mayr with taxonomic notes on the genus (pp. 128-145). In Snelling, R.R., Fisher, B.L. & Ward, P.S. (eds). Advances in ant systematics: homage to E.O. Wilson – 50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 690 pp. PDF
  119. Fernández, F. & Guerrero, R.J. 2008. Technomyrmex in the New World: synopsis and description of a new species. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 34: 110-115. PDF
  120. MacKay, W.P. 2000. A review of the New World ants of the subgenus Myrafant (genus Leptothorax). Sociobiology 36: 265-444. [(31.xii).2000.] PDF
  121. Snelling, R.R., Borowiec, M.L. & Prebus, M.M. 2014. Studies on California ants: a review of the genus Temnothorax (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 372:27–89. doi:10.3897/zookeys.372.6039
  122. Vásquez-Bolaños, M., Castaño-Meneses, G. & Guzmán-Mendoza, R. 2011. New species of Tetramorium from Puebla State, Mexico. Neotropical Entomology. 40:452-455. PDF
  123. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  124. Brandão, C. R. F.; Mayhé-Nunes, A. J. 2007. A phylogenetic hypothesis for the Trachymyrmex species groups, and the transition from fungus-growing to leaf-cutting in the Attini. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute. 80:72-88. PDF
  125. *Mayhé-Nunes, A. J.; Brandão, C. R. F. 2005. Revisionary studies on the attine ant genus Trachymyrmex Forel. Part 2: the Iheringi group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology. 45(2):271-305. PDF
  126. *Mayhé-Nunes, A. J.; Brandão, C. R. F. 2007. Revisionary studies on the attine ant genus Trachymyrmex Forel. Part 3: The Jamaicensis group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa. 1444:1-21. PDF
  127. *Mayhé-Nunes, A. J.; Brandão, C. 2002. Revisionary studies on the attine ant genus Trachymyrmex Forel. Part 1: definition of the genus and the opulentus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology. 40:667-698 PDF
  128. Fernández, F. 2003c. Myrmicine ants of the genera Ochetomyrmex and Tranopelta. Sociobiology 41: 633-661. [(31.xii).2003.] PDF
  129. Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] PDF
  130. Lacau, S.; Villemant, C.; Delabie, J. H. C. 2004. Typhlomyrmex meire, a remarkable new species endemic to Southern Bahia, Brazil (Formicidae: Ectatomminae). Zootaxa 678: 1-23 PDF
  131. Longino, J.T. & Fernández, F. 2007. Taxonomic review of the genus Wasmannia (pp. 271-289). In Snelling, R.R., Fisher, B.L. & Ward, P.S. (eds). Advances in ant systematics: homage to E.O. Wilson – 50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 690 pp.
  132. Cuezzo, F., Calcaterra, L.A., Chifflet, L. & Follett, P. 2015. Wasmannia Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Argentina: Systematics and distribution. Sociobiology, 62, 246-265 (DOI: 10.13102/sociobiology.v62i2.246-265).
  133. LaPolla, J.S., Kallal, R.J. & Brady, S.G. 2012. A new ant genus from the Greater Antilles and Central America, Zatania exemplifies the utility of male and molecular character systems. Systematic Entomology 37: 200-214. PDF