Key to Afrotropical and west Palaearctic Technomyrmex

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This worker key is based on: Bolton, B. 2007b. Taxonomy of the dolichoderine ant genus Technomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) based on the worker caste. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. 35(1): 1-149.

Note. The locations and relative lengths of various setae are critical in the determination of many species. Abraded; or old and damaged. specimens may be difficult or impossible to identify correctly.

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Technomyrmex

1

  • With head in profile the dorsal surface of the frontal carina, or the dorsum immediately mesad of the frontal carina, entirely without setae . . . . . 2
  • With head in profile the dorsal surface of the frontal carina, or the dorsum immediately mesad of the frontal carina, with setae present; at least with one seta present somewhere along the length of the frontal carina, or more usually with a row of 2 - 4 . . . . . 10

2

return to couplet #1

  • Second gastral tergite with setae present (absent from the first tergite) . . . . . 3
  • Second gastral tergite without setae (also absent from the first tergite) . . . . . 5

3

return to couplet #2

  • Head, mesosoma, and petiole yellow to orange, contrasting with the medium to dark brown gaster. (Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic) . . . . . Technomyrmex metandrei
Technomyrmex metandrei casent0424010 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex metandrei casent0424010 profile 1.jpg
  • Head, mesosoma, petiole and gaster all uniformly dark brown to black . . . . . 4

4

return to couplet #3

  • Middle and hind coxae white to yellow, contrasting strongly with the blackish brown to black mesosoma. Basal one-quarter to one third of hind femur dull white to yellow, the remainder dark brown to black. (Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroun, Gabon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Kenya, Uganda) . . . . . Technomyrmex andrei
Technomyrmex andrei casent0178273 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex andrei casent0178273 profile 1.jpg
  • Middle and hind coxae blackish brown to black, the same colour as the mesosoma. Entire hind femur blackish brown to black. (Gabon) . . . . . Technomyrmex parandrei
Technomyrmex parandrei casent0103271 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex parandrei casent0103271 profile 1.jpg

5

return to couplet #2

  • Maxillary palp with 4 segments, labial palp with 3. With propodeum in profile the spiracle located approximately at the point where dorsum meets declivity. Dorsum of fourth gastral tergite without setae. Scape relatively short, SI 67 - 76. Eye small, OI 17 - 21. Head relatively short and broad, CI 100 or more. (Cameroun, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo) . . . . . Technomyrmex lujae
Technomyrmex lujae casent0417897 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex lujae casent0417897 profile 1.jpg
  • Maxillary palp with 6 segments, labial palp with 4. With propodeum in profile the spiracle located approximately half way down the declivity. Dorsum of fourth gastral tergite (and sometimes also third) with setae present. Scape relatively long, SI >90. Eye larger, OI 25 or more. Head relatively longer and narrower, CI < 100 . . . . . 6

6

return to couplet #5

  • Anterior clypeal margin with a long, narrowly U-shaped median incision that is at least as long as broad; inner margin of incision meets anterior clypeal margin in a distinct angle at each side. (Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa; also in Malagasy region) . . . . . Technomyrmex voeltzkowi
Technomyrmex voeltzkowi casent0006839 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex voeltzkowi casent0006839 profile 1.jpg
  • Anterior clypeal margin at most with a shallow median impression that is distinctly broader than long; margin of impression (when present) meets anterior clypeal margin through a shallow curve at each side . . . . . 7

7

return to couplet #6

  • Third gastral tergite with setae present; setae also present on the fourth gastral tergite. (Ghana, Cameroun, Gabon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo) . . . . . Technomyrmex senex
Technomyrmex senex casent0903054 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex senex casent0903054 p 1 high.jpg
  • Third gastral tergite without setae; setae present on the fourth gastral tergite . . . . . 8

8

return to couplet #7

  • Head and mesosoma yellow. In profile the propodeal dorsum meets the declivity in a blunted or distinct angle. Dorsal outline of the mesonotum in profile with a long, flat anterior section and shorter, much more steeply inclined posterior declivity, the two separated by a distinct step or angle. Smaller species with scape relatively long, HL 0.49 - 0.64, HW 0.41 - 0.54, SI 110- >120 . . . . . 9
  • Head and mesosoma brown. In profile the propodeal dorsum rounds evenly into the declivity. Dorsal outline of the mesonotum in profile convex, with a sloping declivitous face that is longer than the anterior section, the two not separated by a distinct step or angle. Larger species with scape relatively short, HL > 0.70, HW > 0.60, SI 90 - 94. (Morocco) . . . . . Technomyrmex vexatus
Technomyrmex vexatus casent0249804 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex vexatus casent0249804 p 1 high.jpg

9

return to couplet #8

  • With propodeum in profile the straight-line length of its dorsum usually less than the depth of the declivity to the spiracle; very rarely the two about equal. Entire body yellow or the gaster slightly darker than the head and mesosoma. Scape relatively shorter, SI 110 - 126. Eye relatively larger, OI 33 - 37. Promesonotum shorter, DTI 130 - 145. Dorsum of head feebly microreticulate or shagreenate. (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroun, Gabon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda) . . . . . Technomyrmex parviflavus
Technomyrmex parviflavus casent0249800 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex parviflavus casent0249800 p 1 high.jpg
  • With propodeum in profile the straight-line length of its dorsum distinctly greater than the depth of the declivity to the spiracle. Bead and mesosoma yellow, the gaster black and strongly contrasting. Scape relatively longer, SI 134 - 137. Eye relatively smaller or OI 28 -31. Promesonotum longer, DTI 162 - 170. Dorsum of head densely sharply reticulate-punctulate. (Gabon) . . . . . Technomyrmex sycorax
Technomyrmex sycorax casent0103273 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex sycorax casent0103273 profile 1.jpg

10

return to couplet #1

  • Gastral tergites 2 - 3 with setae present; setae may be restricted to one or two pairs on each segment or may be numerous . . . . . 12

11

return to couplet #10

  • With head in profile the dorsum with a single pair of setae behind the level of the posterior margin of the eye. With head in full-face view the sides without projecting elevated pubescence. Eyes located more posteriorly, EPI 88 - 93. (Mozambique) ….. Technomyrmex taylori
Technomyrmex taylori casent0911593 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex taylori casent0911593 p 1 high.jpg
  • With head in profile the dorsum without setae behind the level of the posterior margin of the eye. With head in full-face view the sides with projecting elevated pubescence. Eyes located more anteriorly, EPI 63. (Democratic Republic of Congo) . . . . . Technomyrmex rusticus
Technomyrmex rusticus casent0911592 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex rusticus casent0911592 p 1 high.jpg

12

return to couplet #10

  • Dorsal (outer) surfaces of middle and hind tibiae with numerous suberect to erect setae present . . . . . 13
  • Dorsal (outer) surfaces of middle and hind tibiae without setae . . . . . 14

13

return to couplet #12

  • Dorsum of head dull, finely microreticulate to granulose everywhere. First gastral tergite finely densely shagreenate and dull. Pubescence on first gastral tergite dense, masking the surface of the sclerite. (Cameroun) . . . . . Technomyrmex pilipes
  • Dorsum of head smooth, unsculptured except for minute setal pits. First gastral tergite unsculptured, shining. Pubescence on first gastral tergite short, very sparse and scattered, not masking the surface of the sclerite. (Cameroun) . . . . . Technomyrmex semiruber
Technomyrmex semiruber casent0905075 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex semiruber casent0905075 p 1 high.jpg

14

return to couplet #12

  • Dorsal surfaces of pronotum and mesonotum without setae . . . . . 15
  • Dorsal surface of either pronotum or mesonotum, or both of them, with at least one pair of setae present . . . . . 18

15

return to couplet #14

  • Anterior clypeal margin with a broad, roughly semicircular median excavation or notch. Mesosoma and gaster the same colour or very nearly so. Longest setae on second gastral tergite much longer than maximum diameter of the eye. Mesonotum in profile forms a single slope from promesonotal suture to metathoracic spiracles, without distinct dorsal and declivitous faces that are separated by a step or angle. Scape relatively long, SI >120 . . . . . 16
  • Anterior clypeal margin transverse or very nearly so, without a semicircular median excavation or notch. Mesosoma and gaster with different and contrasting colours. Longest setae on second gastral tergite shorter than maximum diameter of the eye. Mesonotum in profile with distinct dorsal and declivitous faces that are separated by a step or angle. Scape relatively short, SI 92 – 108 . . . . . 17

16

return to couplet #15

  • Light brownish yellow species with extremely elongated scape and mesosoma; SI 173 - 189, DTI 232 - 250. With head in profile the dorsum without a pair of setae behind the level of the posterior margin of the eye. Eye located relatively anteriorly on the head, EPI 65 - 73. (Gabon) . . . . . Technomyrmex schoedli
Technomyrmex schoedli casent0103272 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex schoedli casent0103272 profile 1.jpg
  • Dark brown to black species with much shorter scape and mesosoma; SI 125 - 148, DTI 154 - 182. With head in profile the dorsum with a pair of setae behind the level of the posterior margin of the eye. Eye located relatively more posteriorly on the head, EPI 80 - 95. (Cameroun, Gabon, Central African Republic, Uganda, Kenya) . . . . . Technomyrmex camerunensis
Technomyrmex camerunensis casent0178275 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex camerunensis casent0178275 profile 1.jpg

17

return to couplet #15

  • Head and mesosoma yellowish red, gaster black, each gastral segment bordered with yellow posteriorly. (Tanzania) . . . . . Technomyrmex zimmeri
  • Head and mesosoma reddish brown to blackish brown, gaster reddish yellow to orange. (Cameroun, Democratic Republic of Congo) . . . . . Technomyrmex schoutedeni
Technomyrmex schoutedeni casent0905069 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex schoutedeni casent0905069 p 1 high.jpg

18

return to couplet #14

  • With head in full-face view the anterior clypeal margin either has an extensive and very distinct, sharply incised semicircular median notch, or has a long and conspicuous U-shaped median incision . . . . . 19
  • With head in full-face view the anterior clypeal margin is approximately transverse to feebly sinuate, or at most has a small, Shallow, inconspicuous median concavity or weak impression . . . . . 22

19

return to couplet #18

  • With head tilted slightly back from full-face view the posterior margin with only two long setae, one on each side of the midline. In full-face view the posterior margin evenly shallowly concave or with a small shallow median impression. Scape relatively long, SI 82 - 100. Not strongly size-variable species . . . . . 20
  • With head tilted slightly back from full-face view the posterior margin with 4 – 8 setae, 2 - 4 on each side of the midline. In full-face view the posterior margin with a deep, broadly V-shaped, extensive emargination. Scape relatively short, SI 58 - 77. Extremely size-variable to weakly polymorphic species, associated with myrmecophytes. (Cameroun, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo) . . . . . Technomyrmex laurenti
Technomyrmex laurenti casent0249790 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex laurenti casent0249790 p 1 high.jpg

20

return to couplet #19

  • Propodeal declivity with fine, dense transverse rugulose sculpture. With head in profile the dorsum with a pair of setae between the level of the posterior margin of the eye and the pair at the posterior margin of the head. Eye relatively large, OI 29 - 31. Scape slightly longer, SI 91 - 100. (Tanzania, Zimbabwe) . . . . . Technomyrmex arnoldinus
Technomyrmex arnoldinus casent0235731 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex arnoldinus casent0235731 p 1 high.jpg
  • Propodeal declivity without transverse rugulose sculpture. With head in profile the dorsum without a pair of setae between the level of the posterior margin of the eye and the pair at the posterior margin of the head. Eye relatively small, OI 21 - 25. Scape slightly shorter, SI 82 – 88 . . . . . 21

21

return to couplet #20

  • Maxillary palp with 6 segments, labial palp with 4. Dorsum of head behind clypeus with only two pairs of setae: anterior pair at about the midlength of the frontal carinae, posterior pair at the posterior margin; without a pair of setae above the toruli. Head slightly broader, CI 96 - 100. Eyes located slightly more posteriorly, EPI 80 90. (Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Zimbabwe, South Africa) . . . . . Technomyrmex ilgi
Technomyrmex ilgi casent0178276 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex ilgi casent0178276 profile 1.jpg
  • Maxillary palp with 5 segments, labial palp with 3. Dorsum of head behind clypeus with four pairs of setae: anterior pair above the toruli, two pairs along the length of the frontal carinae, one pair at the posterior margin. Head slightly narrower, CI 87 - 91. Eyes located slightly more anteriorly, EPI 71 - 77. (Cameroun, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo) . . . . . Technomyrmex lasiops
Technomyrmex lasiops casent0903055 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex lasiops casent0903055 p 1 high.jpg

22

return to couplet #18

  • With head in profile the dorsum behind the level of the posterior margin of the eye without setae (i. e. setae on the dorsum of the head are restricted to the frontal carinae) . . . . . 23
  • With head in profile the dorsum behind the level of the posterior margin of the eye with one or more pairs of setae present, which may be very short and inconspicuous (i.e. setae on the dorsum of the head are not restricted to the frontal carinae) . . . . . 26

23

return to couplet #22

  • Petiole not the same colour as the gaster; petiole yellow to pale brownish yellow and much lighter than the dark brown to black gaster. Mesosoma dull yellow to very pale brown, distinctly lighter than the gaster and contrasting strongly with it. (Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroun, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Kenya, Uganda) . . . . . Technomyrmex nigriventris
Technomyrmex nigriventris casent0178279 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex nigriventris casent0178279 profile 1.jpg
  • Petiole the same colour (or very nearly) as the gaster; both wholly dark brown or black. Mesosoma brown to black, the same colour as the gaster or very nearly so, the two not strongly contrasting . . . . . 24

24

return to couplet #23

  • Lateral margins of propodeal declivity without projecting setae. (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroun, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania) . . . . . Technomyrmex moerens
Technomyrmex moerens casent0178277 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex moerens casent0178277 profile 1.jpg
  • Lateral margins of propodeal declivity with 1 - 3 pairs of projecting setae that are similar to those on the first gastral tergite . . . . . 25

25

return to couplet #24

  • Scape relatively short and promesonotum relatively short and broad, SI 91 - 102, DTI 110 - 124. Eye somewhat smaller, OI 24 - 27. With mesosoma in absolute profile the mesonotal dorsal outline convex, more or less evenly rounded. In same view the junction of the propodeal dorsum and declivity is blunt. (Tramp species: Tanzania, South Africa (Imported from Mauritius), West Palaearctic (in hothouses)) . . . . . Technomyrmex albipes
Technomyrmex albipes casent0178469 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex albipes casent0178469 profile 1.jpg
  • Scape relatively long and promesonotum relatively long and narrow, SI 104 - 115, DTI 128 - 141. Eye somewhat larger, OI 29 - 32. With mesosoma in absolute profile the mesonotal dorsal outline with a more or less flat anterior section that passes through an obtuse angle to a distinctly more strongly sloped posterior declivity. In same view the junction of the propodeal dorsum and declivity sharply defined. (Tramp species: West Palaearctic (in hothouses only), no Afrotropical records as yet) . . . . . Technomyrmex vitiensis
Technomyrmex vitiensis casent0103244 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex vitiensis casent0103244 profile 1.jpg

26

return to couplet #22

  • With head in profile the dorsum behind the level of the posterior margin of the eye with a single pair of setae present. (Tramp species: not yet recorded from Afrotropical region or West Palaearctic hothouses) . . . . . Technomyrmex difficilis
Technomyrmex difficilis casent0003318 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex difficilis casent0003318 profile 1.jpg
  • With head in profile the dorsum behind the level of the posterior margin of the eye with two or more pairs of setae that may be very short and inconspicuous . . . . . 27

27

return to couplet #26

  • Larger species, HL > 0.80, HW > 0.75, SL > 0.70. Propodeum in profile with a long curved dorsum that rounds evenly and very broadly into the declivity; dorsal and declivitous surfaces not distinctly differentiated . . . . . 28
  • Smaller species, HL < 0.75, HW < 0.75, SL < 0.70. Propodeum in profile with its dorsum short, straight or feebly curved, very narrowly rounded or angular at its junction with the declivity; dorsal and declivitous surfaces distinctly differentiated . . . . . 29

28

return to couplet #27

  • Head and mesosoma dull orange to orange-yellow, gaster black and very strongly contrasting. Middle and hind tarsi the same orange colour as the tibiae and femora. Posterior margin of head without setae. Pronotum with 4 - 5 pairs of setae; mesonotum with 4 - 5 pairs of setae, at least two of which are located well anterior of the point where the dorsum curves down towards the metanotal groove. (Tanzania) . . . . . Technomyrmex hostilis
Technomyrmex hostilis casent0235734 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex hostilis casent0235734 p 1 high.jpg
  • Head, mesosoma and gaster uniformly blackish brown to black. Middle and hind tarsi yellow, much lighter in colour than the brown tibiae and femora. Posterior margin of head with 2 pairs of setae. Pronotum with 1 - 2 pairs of setae; mesonotum with 1 pair, located posteriorly where the dorsum curves down towards the metanotal groove. (Zimbabwe) . . . . . Technomyrmex menozzii
Technomyrmex menozzii casent0903057 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex menozzii casent0903057 p 1 high.jpg

29

return to couplet #27

  • With head in profile a seta present on the dorsum at about the level of the anterior margin of the eye but no seta at level of posterior margin of eye. More posteriorly on the head there are two pairs of extremely short stubbly setae that are both very much shorter than the seta at the level of the anterior margin of the eye. Either head, mesosoma and gaster about the same colour or the head and mesosoma much lighter than the gaster . . . . . 30
  • With head in profile a seta present on the dorsum at about the level of the anterior margin of the eye and another, distinctly shorter, at the level of the posterior margin of the eye. More posteriorly on the head there are two pairs of setae that are about equal in length to the seta at the level of the anterior margin of the eye. Head and gaster the same dark brown colour; mesosoma much lighter. (Saudi Arabia, Yemen) . . . . . Technomyrmex setosus
Technomyrmex setosus casent0906357 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex setosus casent0906357 p 1 high.jpg

30

return to couplet #29

  • Mesosoma in profile brown to black; gaster the same colour or very nearly so. Eye averaging slightly larger (OI 28 - 33) and located relatively more anteriorly, EPI 55 - 71. (Tramp species: Ghana, Cameroun, Gabon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Ethiopia; Somalia, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Madeira, Cape Verde Is, West Palaearctic (in hothouses)) . . . . . Technomyrmex pallipes
Technomyrmex pallipes casent0109857 head 1.jpg
Technomyrmex pallipes casent0109857 profile 1.jpg
  • Mesosoma in profile yellow or orange-yellow; gaster approximately the same colour to distinctly darker. Eye averaging slightly smaller (OI 26 - 29) and located relatively more posteriorly, EPI 79 - 86. (Kenya, Tanzania) . . . . . Technomyrmex vapidus
Technomyrmex vapidus casent0903060 h 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex vapidus casent0903060 p 1 high.jpg