Key to Carebara phragmotica species group workers

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This key is based on Fischer et al 2015 Fischer, G.; Zorsa, F.; Hita Garcia, F.; Mikheyev, A.; Economo, E. 2015. Two new phragmotic ant species from Africa: morphology and next-generation sequencing solve a caste association problem in the genus Carebara Westwood. ZooKeys 525:77–105. PDF

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There are two short keys given below:

Phragmotic Major workers


  • Head with distinct horns at posterior margin, cypeal margin with anterolateral lobes partly hidden under cephalic shield. Center of cephalic shield either with two highly raised, subparallel ridges, or flat with punctures and coneshaped, gland-like structures (Figs 5A, 6A) .....2

  • Horns on posterior border of head and anterolateral lobes of clypeal margin lacking or invisible in full-face view. Sculpture in center of cephalic shield irregularly rugose, neither flat nor with two raised ridges (Fig. 3I, II) (Kenya) [major & minor workers unknown]..... Carebara elmenteitae
Carebara elmenteitae Fischer et al. 2015. Figure 3. Original drawings reproduced from Patrizi, 1948.


return to couplet .....1

  • Cephalic shield lobes longer than and covering most of anterolateral lobes of clypeus. Center of cephalic shield flat, punctate and with cone-shaped, glandlike structures (Fig. 5A) (Ivory Coast) [major workers unknown] ..... Carebara lilith
Carebara lilith Fischer et al. 2015. Figure 5.
  • Anterolateral lobes of clypeus longer than those of cephalic shield and anteriorly surpassing them. Center of cephalic shield with two highly raised, subparallel ridges (Fig. 6A,B) (Kenya).....Carebara phragmotica
Carebara phragmotica Fischer et al. 2015. Figure 6.

Minor workers

not known for Carebara elmenteitae


  • Head weakly subquadratic to subrectangular (CI 90-93), hind femur short (FI 68–69), postpetiole slightly higher than long (LPpI 76–94) and on average about 1.35 times wider than petiole (PpWI 133-137) (Fig. 5) .....Carebara lilith
Carebara lilith Fischer et al. 2015. Figure 5.

  • Head subrectangular (CI 84-88), hind femur moderately short (FI 72-78), postpetiole in profile as long as high or slightly longer (LPpI 100-120) and on average about 1.45 times wider than petiole (PpWI 136-150) (Fig. 7)(Kenya).....Carebara phragmotica
Carebara phragmotica Fischer et al. 2015. Figure 7.