Key to Formica subgenus Coptoformica queens of Europe

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This worker key is based on: Seifert, B 2000a. A taxonomic revision of the ant subgenus Coptoformica Mueller, 1923 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoosystema. 22:517-568.

Seifert notes - For a successfull use of setae characters, scrutinise the diagnostic spots for remains or insertion points of detached setae.

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1

  • Very large, CW > 1600 μm. Craniad profile of forecoxae always with semierect setae, nCoxa 3.5-23. Standing setae on gaster always beginning on first tergite. Eyes always conspicuously hairy, EyeHL 31-69 . . . . . Formica exsecta

2

return to couplet #1

  • Eyes clearly hairy; EyeHL 30-41 μm. Frontal and gastral pubescence extremely dilute, sqrtPDF >5.0, sqrtPDG> 7.0. Rather large, ML > 2450, CL > 1450. Setae on craniad profile of forecoxae reduced, nCOXA 0-2. Setae fully absent from first and second gaster tergite . . . . . Formica fennica
  • Character combination in at least one character radically different . . . . . 3

3

return to couplet #1

  • All body surfaces with subdecumbent and very dense pubescence. Eyes hairy, EyeHL 16-34. Coxal setae reduced, nCOXA 0-3. Pubescence in the ocellar region and on dorsum of first gaster tergite extremly dense, sqrtPDF < 4.1 and sqrtPDG < 5.4. Subdecumbent mesonotal hairs always present, MnHL 48-91 (large specimens of foreli with less short eye hairs differ from bruni by the fully appressed mesonotal pubescence and MnHL = 0) . . . . . Formica bruni
  • Character combination in at least one character radically different . . . . . 4

4

return to couplet #3

  • Clypeus with few setae also in caudal half, ClySet 4. Small size (CL 1214-1285). Long scape (SL/CL 0.905-0.966). Standing mesonotal setae always present (MnHL 80-123). TERG always 1. Craniad profile of forecoxae with five to eight setae. Frontal and gastral pubescence very dense; sqrtPDF < 5.1 sqrtPDG < 5.7. Subboreal-subalpine . . . . . Formica suecica
  • Caudal half of clypeus always without setae, Clyset 1-3. Character combination in at least one character radically different . . . . . 5

5

return to couplet #4

  • Standing setae usually beginning on the posterior margins of third to fifth tergite. Cranidad profile of forecoxae and dorsal mesonotum always without standing setae . . . . . 6
  • Standing setae beginning on first or second tergite. Cranidad profile of forecoxae usually with few semierect setae. Dorsal mesonotum as a rule with standing setae, MnHL 98 ± 48 μm. All body surfaces brilliantly shining. Pubescence in the ocellar region and on dorsum of first gaster tergite very sparse, sqrtPDF 4.8-7.0 and sqrtPDG 5.1-8.1 . . . . . Formica forsslundi

6

return to couplet #5

  • Pubescense in the ocellar region and on dorsum of first gaster tergite sparse, sqrtPDF 4.5-7.8 and sqrtPDG 5.5-8.6. Size smaller, ML 1843-2192. Scape shorter, SL/CL 0.822-0.892. Dorsal surface of head frequently very shining, GLANZ 1.5-3.0. Discriminant score 0.35 sqrtPDF +0.28 sqrtPDG -0.00075 ML -1.68 SL/CL +0.43 GLANZ > 1.4 . . . . . Formica pressilabris
  • Pubescense in the ocellar region and on dorsum of first gaster tergite dense, sqrtPDF 3.4-4.8 and sqrtPDG 4.5-6.7. Size larger, ML 2107-2415. Scape longer, SL/CL 0.857-0.962. Dorsal surface of head usually less shining, GLANZ 1.0-2.5. Discriminant score 0.35 sqrtPDF +0.28 sqrtPDG -0.00075 ML -1.68 SL/CL +0.43 GLANZ < 1.4 . . . . . Formica foreli