Key to New World Acropyga Males

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This key to males is based on LaPolla, J. S. 2004. Acropyga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the World. The American Entomological Institute 33(3):1-130.

This key must be used with caution because males are unknown for many species. Additionally, only a few specimens were available for study in the vast majority of species in which males were known, so, the limits of variation remain uncertain for most species. In some cases the most distinctive characteristics of males are found in the terminalia, and examination of these characters may require dissection. Males are unknown for the following species and therefore are not included in this key: Acropyga guianensis, Acropyga parvidens, Acropyga romeo, Acropyga stenotes.

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1

  • In ventral view, digiti much longer than cuspi; digiti with peg-like teeth near, but not at

apex; antennae with 1 0- 1 1 segments . . . . . 2

  • In ventral view, digiti and cuspi of about the same length; digiti with peg-like teeth at apex; antennae with 9- 1 2 segments . . . . . 3

2

return to couplet #1

  • Apical segment of antennae wide, about as long as preceding four segments; first funicular segment distinctly swollen in appearance; scape fails to reach posterior margin by about length of first funicular segment; mandible with 2 teeth; basal tooth large and roughly rectangular, apically truncated . . . . . Acropyga panamensis
  • Apical segment not as long as preceding four segments; scape surpasses posterior margin by about length of first funicular segment; mandible ,with 3 distinct, triangular teeth . . . . . Acropyga ayanganna

3

return to couplet #1

  • Basal tooth roughly square with 3 indistinct cusps; antennae with 12 segments; in dorsal view, dorsal and ventral penis valve margins gently curve toward each other, giving the two penis valves when viewed together a tubular appearance . . . . . Acropyga tricuspis
  • Basal tooth roughly triangular, without cusps; antennae with 9- 12 segments; in dorsal view, penis valves typically plate-like and parallel to each other . . . . . 4

4

return to couplet #3

  • In full frontal view, inner mandibular margin parallel with anterior clypeal margin when mandibles fully closed; penis valve ventral margin with many small teeth; penis valves without distinct laterally expanded tips . . . . . Acropyga donisthorpei
  • In full frontal view, inner mandibular margin not parallel with anterior clypeal margin when mandibles fully closed; penis valve ventral margin without small teeth, appearing smooth; penis valves can possess distinct laterally expanded tips, though if without mandible not as in lug 4a . . . . . 5

5

return to couplet #4

  • Parameres in lateral view strongly taper caudally; penis valves without distinctly laterally expanded, flattened tips, though caudally penis valves may bend laterally . . . . . 6
  • Parameres in lateral view do not taper caudally, entire structure of about the same width along its length; penis valves with distinctive laterally expanded, flattened tips . . . . . 8

6

return to couplet #5

  • In lateral view, paramere coming to a thin point caudally . . . . . Acropyga decedens
  • In lateral view, paramere either rounded or truncated caudally, but not coming to a thin point . . . . . 7

7

return to couplet #6

8

return to couplet #5

  • In dorsal view, parameres each with dorsolateral expansions (sometimes no more than a slight bulge in the dorsal outline of the paramere) that often obscures view of the digiti and cuspi; lateral surface of parameres not covered in an extremely dense layer of hairs . . . . . 9
  • In dorsal view, parameres without dorsolateral expansions (dorsal outline of paramere more or less straight with no bulge present), or if with slight dorsolateral expansions then lateral surface of parameres with an extremely dense layer of hairs; otherwise paramere lateral surface not covered in a very dense layer of hairs . . . . . 10

9

return to couplet #8

  • Hairs on lateral surface of parameres much shorter near base, becoming longer caudally; antennae with II segments; penis valve ventral extension indistinct, small . . . . . Acropyga keira
  • Hairs on lateral surface of parameres all of about equal length from base to caudal end; antennae with 9- 1 0 segments; penis valve extension distinct, broadly rounded ventrally . . . . . Acropyga exsanguis

10

return to couplet #8

  • Parameres, in lateral view, nearly square in outline, with only scattered, short hairs on lateral surface; penis valve with dorsal notch; Hispaniola only . . . . . Acropyga dubitata
  • Parameres, in lateral view, clearly rectangular in outline, with a thicker layer of long hairs on lateral surface; penis valve without dorsal notch or if with one than lateral surface of parameres covered in a very dense layer of hairs . . . . . 11

11

return to couplet #10

  • Parameres with an extremely dense layer of hairs on lateral surface; in dorsal view, penis valves not reaching caudal end of parameres by about half dorsal length of penis valves; penis valve with dorsal notch . . . . . Acropyga hirsutula
  • Parameres without an extremely dense layer of hairs on lateral surface; in dorsal view, penis valves nears or reaches caudal end of parameres by distance less than half dorsal length of penis valves; penis valve without dorsal notch . . . . . 12

12

return to couplet #11

  • In lateral view parameres ventrally without many long hairs; penis valve ventral extension anterior margin uneven toward apodeme . . . . . Acropyga epedana
  • In lateral view parameres ventrally with many long hairs; penis valve ventral extension anterior margin parallel toward apodeme . . . . . 13

13

return to couplet #12

  • Digiti and cuspi not stalk-like; parameres very thin, with caudal ends wider, dorsally coming to a sharp point; in dorsal view parameres more less parallel to each before they bend toward penis valves . . . . . Acropyga goeldii
  • Digiti and cuspi stalk-like, with long portion leading to their apexes; parameres not wider caudal ends; in dorsal view parameres bulge outward forming a wide “0” as they bend toward penis valves . . . . . Acropyga palaga