The following key to North American Dolichoderus species is modified from Johnson (1989).
- Dorsum of pronotum and mesonotum approximately equal in sculptural development (Fig. 1c) and both surfaces largely opaque; erect hairs on head, upper thoracic surface (Fig. 2c) and scapes. . . . . . Dolichoderus plagiatus
- Dorsum of pronotum, though granulate or punctate, smoother than the mesonotum, its surface opaque or shining; erect hairs may or may not occur on body and scapes . . . . . 2
return to couplet #1
- In dorsal view, the propodeum's width and length approximately equal; erect hairs absent from upper surface of mesosoma or confined to anterior of pronotum; body concolored in black. . . . . Dolichoderus taschenbergi
- In dorsal view, the propodeum's length exceeds its width; erect hairs may or may not occur on upper surface of mesosoma; body concolored or bicolored . . . . . 3
return to couplet #2
- No erect hairs on upper surface of mesosoma; the concave declivous face of propodeum sculptured with fine vertical striations; body bicolored. . . . . . Dolichoderus mariae
- Several erect hairs occur over the length of the mesosoma; the concave, declivous face of propodeum smooth or granulate,; mature adults bicolored or concolored in dark brown or orange. . . . . Dolichoderus pustulatus
- ↑ Johnson, C. 1989. Identification and nesting sites of North American species of Dolichoderus Lund (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insecta Mundi 3: 1-9.