Key to Paratopula species

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This worker key is based on Luo and Guénard, 2016.

There are 12 described species of Paratopula. Workers are known for 8 species, with the remaining 4 only known from sexual forms.

Luo and Guénard noted: The key to global Paratopula species is modified and updated based on the keys and species descriptions provided in Bolton (1988), Sheela & Narendran (2008) and Xu & Xu (2011).

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1

  • Dorsal surfaces of middle and hind tibiae with short stout erect to suberect hairs and short decumbent to appressed pubescence (Borneo: Brunei & E. Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand) . . . . . Paratopula macta
Paratopula macta casent0178560 head 1.jpg
Paratopula macta casent0178560 profile 1.jpg


  • Dorsal surfaces of middle and hind tibiae lacking standing hairs, at most with short decumbent to appressed pubescence . . . . . 2

2

return to couplet #1

  • In profile view, propodeal spines long stout, downcurved along their length. Propodeal lobes sharply hooked upwards apically, their apices directed vertically (Borneo: Brunei) . . . . . Paratopula ankistra
Paratopula ankistra casent0901741 h 1 high.jpg
Paratopula ankistra casent0901741 p 1 high.jpg


  • In profile view, propodeal spines either straight or weakly curved. Propodeal lobes not sharply hooked, if hooked, only slightly so . . . . . 3

3

return to couplet #2

  • In dorsal view, pronotal humeri angulate. Median portion of the anterior margin of the pronotum angular (Figure 8a) (Indonesia, E. Malaysia) . . . . . Paratopula demeta
Paratopula demeta casent0901742 h 1 high.jpg
Paratopula demeta casent0901742 p 1 high.jpg
Figure 8.
  • In dorsal view, pronotal humeri not angular in appearance. Median portion of the anterior margin of the pronotum round. (Figure 8b) . . . . . 4

4

return to couplet #3

  • In dorsal view, postpetiole round or squarish in shape (Figure 9a). Propodeal spines straight - if curved they are slightly curved downwards. . . . . . 5
Figure 9.
  • In dorsal view, postpetiole broader than long or longer than broad, not round or squarish (Figure 9b). Propodeal spines straight - if curved they are slightly curved upward . . . . . 6

5

return to couplet #4

  • In dorsal view, postpetiole more nearly globular (see Figure 4 in Bolton 1988). In profile view, propodeal spines straight. Postpetiole in profile with tergite relatively long low and shallowly convex. Sternite of postpetiole elongate and narrow in profile (Indonesia: Sulawesi) . . . . . Paratopula catocha
Paratopula catocha casent0178559 head 1.jpg
Paratopula catocha casent0178559 profile 1.jpg
  • In dorsal view, postpetiole squarish (see Figure 5 in Bolton 1988). In profile view, propodeal spines straight to feebly down curved. Postpetiole in profile view with tergite relatively short and more strongly convex. Sternite of postpetiole short and deep in profile. (Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan) . . . . . Paratopula ceylonica
Paratopula-ceylonicaH6.3x.jpg
Paratopula-ceylonicaL3.2x.jpg

6

return to couplet #4

  • In dorsal view, postpetiole longer than broad (see Figure 4 in Sheela & Narendran 2011). In full face view frontal carinae indistinct behind frontal lobes. Propodeal lobes angulated apically. (India) . . . . . Paratopula intermedia
  • In dorsal view, postpetiole broader than long (Figure 5), trapezoidal in shape. In full face view frontal carinae fine and continuous, about as long as scapes. Propodeal lobes truncated apically . . . . . 7
Figure 5.

7

return to couplet #6

  • In profile view, propodeal spines slender and acute, slightly curved upwards (see Figure 2 in Xu & Xu 2011). In dorsal view, propodeal spines tapering to a point (Figure 7a). Mandibles with 9 teeth. Dorsum of body with short, blunt hairs (China) . . . . . Paratopula zhengi
P. zhengi Xu and Xu 2011 6.jpg
P. zhengi Xu and Xu 2011 5.jpg
Figure 7.
  • In profile view, propodeal spines straight. In dorsal view, propodeal spines not tapering and round at the tip (Figure 7b). Mandibles with 10 teeth. Dorsum of body with apically acute hairs. (Hong Kong) . . . . . Paratopula bauhinia
Paratopula bauhinia F1.png
Paratopula bauhinia F3.jpg

References