Key to Pheidole minors of Borneo

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This worker key is based on: Eguchi, K. 2001a. A revision of the Bornean species of the ant genus Pheidole (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Tropics Monograph Series. 2:1-154. PDF

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1

  • Antenna with 5-segmented club, or without conspicuous club . . . . . 2

2

return to couplet #1

  • Apical five antennal segments distinctly elongate, and forming conspicuous club; posterior part of head never forming elongate neck . . . . . 3
  • Antenna lacking conspicuous club; posterior part of head forming extremely elongate neck . . . . . 4

3

return to couplet #2

  • Promesonotal dome relatively high; metanotal groove in profile indistinct; in profile posterior declivity of promesonotal dome and dorsum of propodeum bearing ca. 10 standing hairs in total . . . . . Pheidole quinata
Pheidole quinata.jpg
minor
Pheidole quinata casent0901624 p 1 high.jpg
  • Promesonotal dome relatively low; metanotal groove in profile distinct; in profile posterior declivity of promesonotal dome and dorsum of propodeum bearing more than 20 standing hairs in total . . . . . Pheidole sabahna
Pheidole sabahna.jpg
minor
Pheidole sabahna casent0282602 p 1 high.jpg

4

return to couplet #2

  • Propodeal spine more than 4 times as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle; body light brown to brown . . . . . Pheidole montana
Pheidole montana.jpg
Pheidole montana casent0281650 h 1 high.jpg
Pheidole montana casent0281650 p 1 high.jpg
Pheidole comata
Pheidole comata minor
Pheidole comata casent0281705 p 1 high.jpg
Pheidole longipes
Pheidole longipes minor
Pheidole longipes casent0281707 p 1 high.jpg

5

return to couplet #1

  • Promesonotum armed with a pair of long and pointed spines . . . . . 6
  • Promesonotum unarmed, or armed with a pair of processes, but the processes never developed into long and pointed spines (the processes of Pheidole aristotelis well developed but truncate or blunt apically) . . . . . 10

6

return to couplet #5

  • Propodeal spine elongate-triangular, ca. 1.5 times as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle; head smooth and shining . . . . . Pheidole quadricuspis
Pheidole quadricuspis.jpg
minor
Pheidole quadricuspis casent0281629 p 1 high.jpg
  • Propodeal spine horn-like, more than 4 times as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle; head usually sculptured at least partly (in Pheidole acantha head sometimes almost smooth and shining) . . . . . 7

7

return to couplet #6

  • Petiolar node in profile acute at apex; dorsum of alitrunk in profile bearing less than 10 standing hairs . . . . . Pheidole acantha
Pheidole acantha.jpg
minor
Pheidole acantha casent0901618 p 1 high.jpg
  • Petiolar node in profile blunt at apex; dorsum of alitrunk in profile usually bearing more than 20 standing hairs . . . . . 8

8

return to couplet #7

Pheidole spinicornis.jpg
minor
Pheidole spinicornis casent0901620 p 1 high.jpg

9

return to couplet #8

  • Body smaller (AL 1.00-1.20 mm); propodeal spine usually directed upward . . . . . Pheidole quadrensis
Pheidole quadrensis.jpg
minor
Pheidole quadrensis casent0281631 p 1 high.jpg
  • Body larger (AL 1.74-1.83 mm); propodeal spine usually directed posterodorsally . . . . . Pheidole lokitae
Pheidole lokitae.jpg
minor
Pheidole lokitae casent0281703 p 1 high.jpg

10

return to couplet #5

  • Legs from apex of femur to apex of tersus ivory-white contrasted with the remainder of femur which is dark brown . . . . . Pheidole fantasia
Pheidole fantasia.jpg
minor
Pheidole-fantasiaLm8x.jpg

11

return to couplet #10

Pheidole parvicorpus.jpg
minor
Pheidole parvicorpus casent0281688 p 1 high.jpg

12

return to couplet #11

  • Head at least above subocular level distinctly sculptured; occipital carina weak or absent

dorsally on head; posterior declivity of promesonotal dome always without a distinct prominence . . . . . 13

  • Head not, or only weakly, sculptured; occipital carina variable in condition; posterior declivity of promesonotal dome with, or without, a prominence . . . . . 23

13

return to couplet #12

  • Dorsum of head punctured; ventrolateral face of head below subocular level smooth and shining in at least its anterior half . . . . . 14
  • Dorsum of head punctured or reticulate; ventrolateral face of head below subocular level entirely punctured or reticulate; when venter of head less-sculptured (in P. retivertex and P. gombakensis), dorsum of head not punctured but largely rugoso-reticulate . . . . . 16

14

return to couplet #13

  • In profile head below subocular level punctured and dull in its posterior half; petiolar node higher; eye broader . . . . . Pheidole parva
minor
Pheidole parva casent0160279 p 1 high.jpg
  • In profile head below subocular level entirely smooth and shining; petiolar node lower; eye narrower . . . . . 15

15

return to couplet #14

Pheidole rugifera.jpg
minor
Pheidole rugifera casent0901652 p 1 high.jpg
Pheidole tenebricosa.jpg
minor
Pheidole tenebricosa casent0901658 p 1 high.jpg

16

return to couplet #13

  • Both head and alitrunk reticulate; propodeal spine ca. 6 times as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle . . . . . Pheidole sayapensis
Pheidole sayapensis.jpg
minor
Pheidole sayapensis casent0901654 p 1 high.jpg
  • At least mesopleuron and lateral face of propodeum punctured; propodeal spine usually less than 4.5 times as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle . . . . . 17

17

return to couplet #16

Pheidole aristotelis.jpg
minor
Pheidole aristotelis casent0282388 p 1 high.jpg
  • Promesonotum unarmed, or only with a pair of low tubercles which never develop into distinct spines . . . . . 18

18

return to couplet #17

  • Median part of clypeus distinctly punctured and dull . . . . . 19

19

return to couplet #18

  • Posterior declivity of promesonotal dome relatively steep; propodeal spine longer than that of P. rabo . . . . . Pheidole tjibodana
Pheidole tjibodana.jpg
minor
Pheidole tjibodana casent0904241 p 1 high.jpg
  • Posterior declivity of promesonotal dome relatively gentle; propodeal spine shorter than that of P. tjibodana . . . . . Pheidole rabo
Pheidole rabo.jpg
minor
Pheidole rabo casent0907990 p 1 high.jpg

20

return to couplet #18

  • Promesonotum without a pair of tubercles; propodeal spine triangular or elongate-triangular, at most twice as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle . . . . . 21
  • Promesonotum with a pair of low tubercles; propodeal spine horn-like, at least 3 times as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle . . . . . 22

21

return to couplet #20

Pheidole gombakensis.jpg
Pheidole retivertex.jpg
minor
Pheidole retivertex casent0901650 p 1 high.jpg

22

return to couplet #20

Pheidole angulicollis.jpg
minor
Pheidole angulicollis casent0901622 p 1 high.jpg
Pheidole poringensis.jpg
minor
Pheidole poringensis casent0901660 p 1 high.jpg

23

return to couplet #12

Pheidole modiglianii.jpg
minor
Pheidole modiglianii casent0281713 p 1 high.jpg
  • Propodeal spine sometimes long, but never extending over petiolar node . . . . . 24

24

return to couplet #23

Pheidole huberi.jpg
minor
Pheidole huberi casent0281711 p 1 high.jpg

25

return to couplet #24

  • Declivitous face of promesonotal dome without any distinct prominence . . . . . 26
  • Declivitous face of promesonotal dome with a prominence . . . . . 39

26

return to couplet #25

  • Petiolar node very high; mesopleuron divided into two parts, of which lower part is more or less margined dorsally . . . . . 27
  • Petiolar node not so high; mesopleuron usually not divided into upper and lower parts; if it is divided into two parts, the lower part is usually not margined dorsally . . . . . 28

27

return to couplet #26

Pheidole sarawakana.jpg
minor
Pheidole sarawakana casent0281717 p 1 high.jpg
minor
Pheidole sauberi casent0282609 p 1 high.jpg
minor
Pheidole elisae casent0282611 p 1 high.jpg

28

return to couplet #26

  • Occipital carina almost evanescent, or absent dorsally on head . . . . . 36

29

return to couplet #28

  • Distance between mandibular insertion and anterior margin of eye 1.5-1.6 times as long as maximal diameter of eye . . . . . Pheidole havilandi
Pheidole havilandi.jpg
minor
Pheidole havilandi casent0281719 p 1 high.jpg
  • Distance between mandibular insertion and anterior margin of eye at most 1.1 times as long as maximal diameter of eye . . . . . 30

30

return to couplet #28

Pheidole tawauensis.jpg
minor
Pheidole tawauensis casent0901656 p 1 high.jpg

31

return to couplet #30

  • Petiole more than 1.7 times as long as postpetiole; anterior declivity of promesonotal dome in profile relatively steep . . . . . Pheidole lucioccipitalis
Pheidole lucioccipitalis.jpg
minor
Pheidole lucioccipitalis casent0901644 p 1 high.jpg
  • Petiole at most 1.5 times as long as postpetiole; anterior declivity of promesonotal dome in profile relatively gentle . . . . . 32

32

return to couplet #31

Pheidole submonticola.jpg
minor
Pheidole submonticola casent0179657 p 1 high.jpg
  • No conspicuous rugulae running immediately above eye . . . . . 33

33

return to couplet #32

  • Upper part of mesopleuron, and lateral face of propodeum largely smooth and shining . . . . . 34
  • Mesopleuron and lateral face of propodeum punctured . . . . . 35

34

return to couplet #33

  • Eye small, with ca. 5 ommatidia on longest axis; head in full-face view oval . . . . . Pheidole upeneci
Pheidole upeneci.jpg
minor
Pheidole upeneci casent0907774 p 1 high.jpg
  • Eye large, with ca. 10 ommatidia on longest axis; head in full-face view subrectangular . . . . . Pheidole manukana
Pheidole manukana.jpg
minor
Pheidole manukana casent0901632 p 1 high.jpg

35

return to couplet #33

  • Body yellowish brown; promesonotum with a pair of very low tubercles dorsolaterally . . . . . Pheidole kikutai
Pheidole kikutai.jpg
minor
Pheidole kikutai casent0901648 p 1 high.jpg
minor
Pheidole megacephala casent0059654 profile 1.jpg

36

return to couplet #28

  • Propodeal spine 3.5-4 times as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle . . . . . Pheidole deltea
Pheidole deltea.jpg
minor
  • Propodeal spine at most twice as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle . . . . . 37

37

return to couplet #36

Pheidole hortensis minor
Pheidole hortensis casent0179655 p 1 high.jpg
Pheidole clypeocornis minor
Pheidole-clypeocornismL10.jpg
  • In profile promesonotum evenly convex, or flat and low . . . . . 38

38

return to couplet #37

Pheidole merimbun minor
Pheidole merimbun casent0901634 p 1 high.jpg
Pheidole planidorsum minor
Pheidole planidorsum casent0901638 p 1 high.jpg
  • Promesonotal dome in profile higher, and convexer dorsally; CI 84-89 . . . . . Pheidole butteli
Pheidole butteli.jpg
minor
Pheidole butteli casent0907865 p 1 high.jpg

39

return to couplet #25

40

return to couplet #39

  • Distance between mandibular insertion and anterior margin of eye 1.3-1.5 times as long as maximal diameter of eye; postpetiole 2.3-2.5 times as broad as petiolar node; anterior declivity of promesonotal dome relatively steep; lateral face of promesonotum weakly punctured . . . . . Pheidole ghigii
Pheidole ghigii.jpg
minor
Pheidole ghigii casent0281729 p 1 high.jpg
  • Distance between mandibular insertion and anterior margin of eye 0.9-1.0 times as long as maximal diameter of eye; postpetiole 2.0-2.2 times as broad as petiolar node; anterior declivity of promesonotal dome relatively gentle; lateral face of promesonotum smooth and shining . . . . . Pheidole plinii
Pheidole plinii.jpg
minor
Pheidole plinii casent0281664 p 1 high.jpg

41

return to couplet #39

  • Prominence on posterior declivity of promesonotal dome, and dorsum of propodeum each bearing a pair of standing hairs . . . . . Pheidole cariniceps
Pheidole cariniceps.jpg
minor
Pheidole cariniceps casent0281659 p 1 high.jpg
  • Prominence on posterior declivity of promesonotal dome, and dorsum of propodeum each bearing more than one pair of standing hairs . . . . . 42

42

return to couplet #41

  • Occipital carina forming a well-developed flange, which is in full-face view narrowed at its base . . . . . Pheidole aglae
Pheidole aglae.jpg
minor
Pheidole aglae casent0281669 p 1 high.jpg
  • Occipital carina sometimes forming a flange, but in full-face view not narrowed at base . . . . . 43

43

return to couplet #42

Pheidole plagiaria.jpg
minor
Pheidole plagiaria casent0281715 p 1 high.jpg

44

return to couplet #43

  • Large part of dorsum of head very weakly punctured; promesonotal dome in profile higher and rounder . . . . . Pheidole inornata
Pheidole inornata.jpg
minor
Pheidole inornata casent0281671 p 1 high.jpg
  • Dorsum of head except the area around antennal insertion smooth over the surface; promesonotal dome in profile lower . . . . . 45

45

return to couplet #44

  • Lower part of mesopleuron smooth and shining, or slightly punctured; petiole 0.9-1.0 times as long as postpetiole . . . . . Pheidole annexa
Pheidole annexa.jpg
minor
Pheidole annexa casent0901626 p 1 high.jpg
  • Mesopleuron punctured; petiole at least 1.3 times as long as postpetiole . . . . . 46

46

return to couplet #45

Pheidole fervens.jpg
minor
Pheidole fervens casent0005780 profile 1.jpg
minor
Pheidole jacobsoni casent0284075 p 1 high.jpg