Key to Polyrhachis of India

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This worker key is based on: Karmaly, K. A. 2004. A new species and a key to species of Polyrhachis Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India. Pp. 539-551 in: Rajmohana, K., Sudheer, K., Girish Kumar, P., and S. Santhosh. (eds.) Perspectives on biosystematics and biodiversity.

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Polyrhachis

1

2

return to couplet #1

  • Thorax rounded above, sides not margined along their whole length . . . . . 3
  • Thorax flat above, sides margined along their whole length . . . . . 37

3

return to couplet #2

4

return to couplet #3

  • Petiole spines parallel, not divergent from base . . . . . 5
Polyrhachis-ypsilonH1.6x.jpg
Polyrhachis-ypsilonL1.25x.jpg

5

return to couplet #4

  • Pronotal spines pointing outwards and curved laterally backwards, forming hooks . . . . . Polyrhachis bihamata
Polyrhachis bihamata casent0010659 head 1.jpg
Polyrhachis bihamata casent0010659 profile 1.jpg
  • Pronotal spines pointing outwards and downwards, not curved, not forming hooks . . . . . Polyrhachis bellicosa
Polyrhachis bellicosa head.jpg
Polyrhachis bellicosa side.jpg

6

return to couplet #3

7

return to couplet #6

  • Pubescence silky, short and recumbent, or sparse and erect, or entirely wanting . . . . . 10

8

return to couplet #7

MCZ Polyrhachis furcata hef4.jpg
MCZ Polyrhachis furcata hal2 .jpg

9

return to couplet #8

Polyrhachis gracilior casent0903373 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis gracilior casent0903373 p 1 high.jpg


Polyrhachis rufipes casent0901869 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis rufipes casent0901869 p 1 high.jpg

10

return to couplet #7

11

return to couplet #10

Polyrhachis rupicapra casent0906783 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis rupicapra casent0906783 p 1 high.jpg

12

return to couplet #11

Polyrhachis hodgsoni casent0906778 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis hodgsoni casent0906778 p 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis arachne casent0217744 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis arachne casent0217744 p 1 high.jpg

13

return to couplet #10

  • Basal portion of metanotum without margin laterally . . . . . 14
  • Basal portion of metanotum with margin laterally . . . . . 27

14

return to couplet #13

15

return to couplet #14

  • Spines on petiole wide-spread encircling front of abdomen . . . . . 16
  • Spines on petiole not wide-spread, and not encircling abdomen . . . . . 18

16

return to couplet #15

Polyrhachis tubericeps casent0910899 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis tubericeps casent0910899 p 1 high.jpg
  • Head without a tubercle on either side behind the eyes . . . . . 17

17

return to couplet #16

Polyrhachis lacteipennis casent0227531 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis lacteipennis casent0227531 p 1 high.jpg
(in part - also #22)
Polyrhachis thompsoni casent0217804 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis thompsoni casent0217804 p 1 high.jpg

18

return to couplet #15

  • Head, thorax and abdomen shining; metallic blue or purple . . . . . Polyrhachis venus
Polyrhachis venus casent0217807 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis venus casent0217807 p 1 high.jpg
  • Head, thorax and abdomen not shining, black; abdomen sometimes red . . . . . 19

19

return to couplet #18

  • Head, thorax and petiole node coarsely punctured . . . . . 20

20

return to couplet #19

Polyrhachis-armata HUMCZ001H.jpg
Polyrhachis-armata-HUMCZ001L1.jpg
Polyrhachis fortis casent0905601 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis fortis casent0905601 p 1 high.jpg

21

return to couplet #19

  • Petiolar node with two median vertical short acute spines between spines on upper lateral angles of node . . . . . Polyrhachis hauxwelli
Polyrhachis hauxwelli casent0903384 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis hauxwelli casent0903384 p 1 high.jpg
  • Petiolar node without median spines between spines on upper lateral angles of node . . . . . 22

22

return to couplet #21

Polyrhachis lacteipennis casent0227531 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis lacteipennis casent0227531 p 1 high.jpg
(in part - also #17) 
Polyrhachis menelas casent0910891 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis menelas casent0910891 p 1 high.jpg

23

return to couplet #14

Polyrhachis bicolor head AntWiki.jpg
Polyrhachis bicolor side AntWiki.jpg

24

return to couplet #23

Polyrhachis tibialis casent0217805 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis tibialis casent0217805 p 1 high.jpg

25

return to couplet #24

  • Two small teeth between spines on upper lateral angles of petiolar node . . . . . 26
  • Three small teeth between spines on upper lateral angles of petiolar node . . . . . Polyrhachis vicina

26

return to couplet #25

Polyrhachis-divesH4x.jpg
Polyrhachis-divesL2.5x.jpg

27

return to couplet #13

28

return to couplet #27

Polyrhachis chalybea casent0217753 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis chalybea casent0217753 p 1 high.jpg

29

return to couplet #28

Polyrhachis andromache head Antwiki.jpg
Polyrhachis andromache side Antwiki.jpg

, Polyrhachis abdominalis, Polyrhachis mutata

Polyrhachis mutata casent0906764 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis mutata casent0906764 p 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis aedipus casent0906763 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis aedipus casent0906763 p 1 high.jpg

30

return to couplet #27

Polyrhachis binghamii casent0906766 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis binghamii casent0906766 p 1 high.jpg
  • Pronotal spines long, acute, pointing divergent or straightly pointing forwards . . . . . 31

31

return to couplet #30

Polyrhachis-pubescensH3.2x.jpg
Polyrhachis-pubescensL2x.jpg


  • Basal portion of metanotum posteriorly bunded by a faint transverse carina . . . . . 32

32

return to couplet #31

Polyrhachis aculeata head 25-Antwiki.jpg
Polyrhachis aculeata side 20-Antwiki.jpg
Polyrhachis gibbosa casent0910939 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis gibbosa casent0910939 p 1 high.jpg

33

return to couplet #6

34

return to couplet #33


MCZ-ENT001 Polyrhachis-laevissima hef.jpg
MCZ-ENT001 Polyrhachis-laevissima hal.jpg

35

return to couplet #33

Polyrhachis wroughtonii casent0281405 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis wroughtonii casent0281405 p 1 high.jpg

36

return to couplet #35

Polyrhachis laevigata casent0906769 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis laevigata casent0901855 p 2 high.jpg

37

return to couplet #2

Polyrhachis craddocki casent0903296 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis craddocki casent0903296 p 1 high.jpg
  • Pronotum with spine, mesonotum and rnetanotum with or without spines, teeth or tubercles . . . . . 38

38

return to couplet #37

  • Pronotum always with a spine; mesonotum and metanotum with triangular lamina . . . . . Polyrhachis horni
Polyrhachis horni casent0905539 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis horni casent0905539 p 1 high.jpg
  • Pronotum with or without spines; mesonotum unarmed; metanotum with teeth or lamina or spine or tubercle . . . . . 39

39

return to couplet #38

40

return to couplet #39

41

return to couplet #40

  • Petiole node with two long spines on upper angles, and two short lateral spines or teeth . . . . . 42

42

return to couplet #41

  • Lateral spines or teeth truncate or bimucronate at apex . . . . . 43
  • Lateral spines or teeth pointed, not truncate nor bimucronate at apex . . . . . 44

43

return to couplet #42

Polyrhachis proxima casent0217791 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis proxima casent0217791 p 1 high.jpg

44

return to couplet #42

Polyrhachis illaudata casent0217775 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis illaudata casent0217775 p 1 high.jpg

45

return to couplet #44

  • Basal portion of metanotum not convex, but transversely submargined . . . . . 46

46

return to couplet #45

  • Antennal carinae short, not divergent posteriorly . . . . . 48

47

return to couplet #46

  • Abdomen finely punctured and the punctures seem to run into minutely fine striae . . . . . Polyrhachis striata
Polyrhachis striata casent0906817 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis striata casent0906817 p 1 high.jpg

48

return to couplet #46

  • Meso-metanotal suture not very distinct; legs not covered with long erect hairs, smooth . . . . . Polyrhachis yerburyi
Polyrhachis yerburyi casent0906812 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis yerburyi casent0906812 p 1 high.jpg

49

return to couplet #41

Polyrhachis striatorugosa casent0906815 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis striatorugosa casent0906815 p 1 high.jpg
  • Pubescence, recumbent and glistening greyish, length 5 mm-6mm . . . . . 50

50

return to couplet #49

Polyrhachis convexa casent0906801 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis convexa casent0906801 p 1 high.jpg

51

return to couplet #40

  • Petiole node with two long spines on upper lateral angles and two short obtuse teeth between them . . . . . Polyrhachis jerdonii
Polyrhachis jerdonii casent0906755 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis jerdonii casent0906755 p 1 high.jpg
  • Petiole node with three or four spines or teeth . . . . . 52

52

return to couplet #51

53

return to couplet #52

54

return to couplet #53

Polyrhachis punctillata casent0906797 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis punctillata casent0906797 p 1 high.jpg

55

return to couplet #52

Polyrhachis frauenfeldi casent0906583 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis frauenfeldi casent0906583 p 1 high.jpg

56

return to couplet #55

Polyrhachis thrinax casent0281417 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis thrinax casent0281417 p 1 high.jpg

57

return to couplet #39

Polyrhachis halidayi casent0905552 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis halidayi casent0905552 p 1 high.jpg
  • Metanotal spines broad, triangular, pointing backwards . . . . . 58

58

return to couplet #57

59

return to couplet #58

Polyrhachis exercita casent0217770 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis exercita casent0217770 p 1 high.jpg

60

return to couplet #1

Polyrhachis rastellata casent0903407 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis rastellata casent0903407 p 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis pagana casent0912107 h 1 high.jpg
Polyrhachis pagana casent0912107 p 1 high.jpg