Key to Vietnamese Ponerinae Genera

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This key is based on: Eguchi, K., Bui, T.V. and Yamane, S. 2014. Generic Synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam (Insecta: Hymenoptera), Part II - Cerapachyinae, Aenictinae, Dorylinae, Leptanillinae, Amblyoponinae, Ponerinae, Ectatomminae and Ponerinae. Zootaxa. 3860:1–46.

The key includes Bothroponera, Pseudoponera, Emeryopone and Myopias, which have wide distributions in the Oriental region, but are not yet recorded from Vietnam.

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1

  • Mandible long and straight, inserted in middle of anterior margin of head (Fig. 23); girdling constriction between abdominal segments III and IV very weak (Fig. 24) . . . . . 2
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 23-24.
  • Mandible triangular or rarely elongate, but always inserted at anterolateral corner of head (Figs. 25, 26, 78, 79); girdling constriction between abdominal segments III and IV usually pronounced (Fig. 27) . . . . . 3
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 25-36.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 78-79.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 27.

2

return to couplet #1

  • A pair of dark lines (dl in Fig. 28) present on posterior face of head; the lines meet together at or near the dorsalmost part of preoccipital carina (oc); vertex with a median longitudinal carina (mlc) which meet preoccipital carina . . . . . Odontomachus
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 28.
  • A pair of dark lines absent on posterior face of head inside preoccipital carina (oc in Fig. 29); vertex without a median longitudinal carina . . . . . Anochetus
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 29.

3

return to couplet #1

  • Frontal lobes broadly separated by posteromedian portion of clypeus (Fig. 30); metatibia 2 pectinate spurs spurs (Fig. 31) . . . . . Platythyrea
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 30.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 31.
  • Frontal lobes narrowly separated by posteromedian portion of clypeus or otherwise closely approximated (Fig. 32); metatibia with only 1 simple or pectinate spur, or with a large pectinate spur and a much smaller simple spur (Figs. 33, 34) . . . . . 4
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 32.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 33-34.

4

return to couplet #3

  • Mandible with an elongate and linear blade which has two rows of many small teeth (Fig. 25); ventral part of base of each mandibular blade forming a large triangular flange . . . . . Harpegnathos
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 25-26.
  • Mandible variable in shape but never with blade as above (Figs. 26, 78, 79) . . . . . 5
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 78-79.

5

return to couplet #4

  • Anterior clypeal margin armed with a series of distinct teeth (Fig. 35); each humerus (dorsolateral part of pronotum) forming a distinct process (Fig. 36) . . . . . Odontoponera
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 35-36.
  • Anterior clypeal margin without a series of distinct teeth (Fig. 37), but often with a median emargination or tooth/process; each humerus (dorsolateral part of pronotum) never forming a distinct process (Fig. 38) . . . . . 6
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 37-38.

6

return to couplet #5

  • Posterodorsal margin of petiolar node armed with a pair of acute spines (Fig. 39); a conspicuous excavation present above mesopleuron (Fig. 40) (in ergatoid queen the excavation filled with a substance called gemma) . . . . . Diacamma
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 39-40.
  • Posterodorsal margin of petiolar node usually unarmed (Fig. 41), or sometimes with three or more dents or rarely with a single median prominence, but never armed with a pair of acute spines; a conspicuous excavation absent above mesopleuron (Fig. 42) . . . . . 7
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 41-42.

7

return to couplet #6

  • Inner margin of pretarsal claws of hind leg armed with 1 to many teeth (Fig. 43); median portion of clypeus well produced anteriad (Fig. 44) . . . . . Leptogenys
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 43-44.
  • Inner margin of pretarsal claws of hind leg without teeth (Fig. 45); median portion of clypeus usually weakly produced (Fig. 46), but sometimes forming a conspicuous projection . . . . . 8
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 45-46.

8

return to couplet #7

  • Dorsal (outer) surface of mesotibia with peg-like or spiniform setae among background pilosity (Fig. 47) . . . . . 9
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 47.
  • Dorsal surface of mesotibia without peg-like or spiniform setae (Fig. 48) (dorsal surface of mesotibia sometimes with a few stout setae near tarsus but not extending along length of tibia, and/or sometimes with relatively long and thick standing setae scattered among background pilosity) . . . . . 10
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 48.

9

return to couplet #8

  • Basal portion of mandible with a distinct circular fovea or elongate depression dorsolaterally (Fig. 49) . . . . . Cryptopone
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 49.
  • Basal portion of mandible without a circular fovea or elongate depression dorsolaterally (Fig. 50) . . . . . Centromyrmex
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 50.

10

return to couplet #8

  • Apex of metatibia ventrally with a large pectinate spur, but without a smaller, simple spur in front of the pectinate spur (Fig. 34) . . . . . 11
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 34.
  • Apex of metatibia ventrally with a large pectinate spur and a smaller, simple spur in front of the pectinate spur (Fig. 33) . . . . . 13

11

return to couplet #10

  • Mandible elongate-triangular and armed with 5 long teeth (including apical tooth and basal angle); apical tooth extremely elongated and falciform (Fig. 79) . . . . . Emeryopone (not yet found in Vietnam)
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 78-79.
  • Mandible triangular to elongate-triangular and armed with several triangular teeth or with serrate masticatory margin; apical tooth not falciform (Fig. 51) . . . . . 12
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 51.

12

return to couplet #11

  • Subpetiolar process in lateral view posteroventrally with a pair of acute angles (pa in Fig. 52), and anteriorly with a conspicuous round depression (ad) . . . . . Ponera
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 52.
  • Subpetiolar process in lateral view posteroventrally without a pair of angles, and anteriorly without a conspicuous round depression (Fig. 53) . . . . . Hypoponera
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 53.

13

return to couplet #10

  • Antennal sockets very close to or at anterior clypeal margin, and frontal lobe in full-face view reaching or overhanging anterior clypeal margin (Fig. 78); mandible usually (but not always) linear (Fig. 78) . . . . . Myopias (not yet found in Vietnam)
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 78-79.
  • Antennal sockets well behind anterior clypeal margin (Fig. 32); mandible triangular (Fig. 54) or elongate-triangular (Fig. 55) . . . . . 14
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 32.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 54.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 55.

14

return to couplet #13

  • Clypeus with a blunt anteromedian rectangular projection (Fig. 56); eye extremely reduced . . . . . Buniapone
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 56.
  • Clypeus without a blunt anteromedian rectangular projection (but sometime with a median tooth or process) (Fig. 57); eye usually developed (but sometimes extremely reduced or absent) . . . . . 15
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 57.

15

return to couplet #14

  • Mandible strongly elongate (Fig. 55) . . . . . Mesoponera
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 55.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 54.

16

return to couplet #15

  • Basal portion of mandible with a circular or elliptical pit (Fig. 58) . . . . . 17
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 58.
  • Basal portion of mandible without a circular or elliptical pit (Fig. 59), but often with a weak groove (Fig. 60) . . . . . 18
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 59.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 60.

17

return to couplet #16

  • Abdominal sternite III with a distinct anteroventral flange (prora) beneath helcium (Fig. 61); orifice of propodeal spiracle slit-shaped (Fig. 62) . . . . . Euponera
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 61.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 62.
  • Prora reduced and not externally visible (Fig. 63); orifice of propodeal spiracle round or oval (Fig. 64) . . . . . Brachyponera (in part - also 18)
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 63.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 64.

18

return to couplet #16

  • Orifice of propodeal spiracle round (Fig. 64); prora reduced and not externally visible (Fig. 63) . . . . . Brachyponera (in part - also 17)
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 64.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 63.
  • Orifice of propodeal spiracle elongate or slit-shaped (Fig. 65); prora conspicuous (Fig. 66) . . . . . 19
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 66.
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 66.

19

return to couplet #18

  • Posterodorsal margin of petiole with a row of small teeth or denticles (Fig. 67) . . . . . Pseudoneoponera
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 67.
  • Posterodorsal margin of petiole without a row of small teeth or denticles (Fig. 68) . . . . . 20
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 68.

20

return to couplet #19

  • Mesopleuron divided by a transverse groove (Fig. 69) . . . . . Ectomomyrmex
Eguchi et. al. 2014. Fig. 69.

21

return to couplet #20

  • Compound eyes small (with 2-4 facets) or absent. Subpetiolar process with an anterior fenestra and/or a pair of posteroventral teeth . . . . . Parvaponera
  • Compound eyes present and moderate to large, with numerous facets. Subpetiolar process simple, with neither an anterior fenestra nor a pair of posteroventral teeth . . . . . 22

22

return to couplet #21

  • Metanotal groove absent or essentially absent; petiole in lateral view generally cuboidal . . . . . Bothroponera (not yet found in Vietnam)
  • Metanotal groove present as a shallow impression; petiole in lateral view generally triangular . . . . . Pseudoponera (not yet found in Vietnam)