AntWiki - Where Ant Biologists Share Their Knowledge
Jump to: navigation, search
Leptothorax acervorum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Leptothorax
Mayr, 1855
Type species
Formica acervorum, now Leptothorax acervorum
19 species
(Species Checklist)

Leptothorax acervorum casent0104845 profile 1.jpg

Leptothorax acervorum

Leptothorax acervorum casent0104845 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label



Keys including this Genus


World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Leptothorax Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Leptothorax Species Richness.png


Heinze and Gratiashvili (2015) - A phylogenetic analysis suggests that functional monogyny evolved convergently in several lineages of Leptothorax. Reproductive skew thus appears to be a labile trait. This is made particularly obvious by the existence of both functionally monogynous and polygynous populations of Leptothorax acervorum (Heinze et al. 1995; Gill et al. 2009).



Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 11 • Antennal club 3 • Palp formula 5,3 • Total dental count 5-6 (6 usual) • Spur formula 0, 0 • Sting present

Male Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club 0 • Palp formula 5,3 • Total dental count 0 • Spur formula 0, 0


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • LEPTOTHORAX [Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini]
    • Leptothorax Mayr, 1855: 431. Type-species: Formica acervorum, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1903: 214.
    • [Type-species not Myrmica clypeata, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1912d: 271; repeated in Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 79 and Emery, 1924d: 248.]
    • Leptothorax senior synonym of Mychothorax: Smith, M.R. 1950: 29 [both have the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute].
    • Leptothorax senior synonym of Doronomyrmex: Heinze, 1998: 195.
  • DORONOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Leptothorax]
    • Doronomyrmex Kutter, 1945: 485. Type-species: Doronomyrmex pacis, by monotypy.
    • Doronomyrmex junior synonym of Leptothorax: Heinze, 1998: 195.
  • MYCHOTHORAX [junior synonym of Leptothorax]
    • Mychothorax Ruzsky, 1904a: 288. Type-species: Formica acervorum, by original designation.
    • Mychothorax subgenus of Leptothorax: Ruzsky, 1905b: 609; Emery, 1915g: 24.
    • Mychothorax junior synonym of Leptothorax: Smith, M.R. 1950: 29.
    • [Leptothorax and Mychothorax share the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute.]


  • Arnold, G. 1916. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part II. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 14: 159-270 (page 257, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini)
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Stenammini)
  • Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. (page 214, Type-species: Formica acervorum, by subsequent designatio)
  • Bolton, B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmecine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissotarsus, Messor and Cataulacus (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology, 46: 307-370 (page 319, Leptothorax senior synonym of Dichothorax, Mychothorax, Myrafant (and its junior synonym Icothorax), Myrmammophilus, Nesomyrmex (and its junior synonyms Caulomyrma, Goniothorax (junior homonym) and Limnomyrmex), Temnothorqax, Tetramyrma)
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 105, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Formicoxenini)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 247, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Formicoxenini)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. (page 178-185, Leptothorax provisional senior synonym of Antillaemyrmex, Caulomyrma, Croesomyrmex, Dichohorax, Goniothorax, Icothorax, Limnomyrmex, Macromischa, Mychothorax, Myrmammophilus, Myrafant, Nesomyrmex, Temnothorax)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 122, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae)
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Leptothorax in Myrmicidae, Myrmicidae`)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 769, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 42, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini)
  • Emery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B: 95-206 (page 248, Type-species not Myrmica clypeata, unjustified subsequent designation.)
  • Emery, C. 1924f [1922]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C: 207-397 (page 247, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 458, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Forel, A. 1895b. A fauna das formigas do Brazil. Bol. Mus. Para. Hist. Nat. Ethnogr. 1: 89-139 (page 125, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Forel, A. 1899d. Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 25-56 (page 54, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 244, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini)
  • Heinze, J. 1998 ("1995"). The origin of workerless parasites in Leptothorax (s. str.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Cambridge) 102:195-214. [1998-03-27] PDF
  • Heinze, J. and N. Gratiashvili. 2015. High skew in the Caucasus: functional monogyny in the ant Leptothorax scamni. Insectes Sociaux. 62:385-392. doi:10.1007/s00040-015-0415-5
  • Kusnezov, N. 1964 [1963]. Zoogeografía de las hormigas en Sudamérica. Acta Zool. Lilloana 19: 25-186 (page 57, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini (anachronism))
  • MacKay, W. P. 2000. A review of the New World ants of the subgenus Myrafant, (genus Leptothorax) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 36: 265-444 (page 267, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Formicoxenini)
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 431, Leptothorax as genus; in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae] [Type-species not Myrmica clypeata, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1912d: 271; repeated in Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 79 and Emery, 1924d: 248.] )
  • Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 57, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 20, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Smith, M. R. 1950a. On the status of Leptothorax Mayr and some of its subgenera. Psyche (Camb.) 57: 29-30 (page 29, Leptothorax senior synonym of Mychothorax; [both have the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute]. )
  • Snelling, R. R. 1986. New synonymy in Caribbean ants of the genus Leptothorax (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 88: 154-156 (page 154, Leptothorax senior synonym of Macromischa (and its junior synonyms Antillaemyrmex and Croesomyrmex))
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 139, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1915i [1914]. The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schr. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsb. 55: 1-142 (page 63, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 664, Leptothorax in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini)