| Manica bradleyi|
(Wheeler, W.M., 1909)
Manica bradleyi is a high-elevation specialist found in mountains of California and nearby Nevada, with a single record from the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. It commonly makes round crater nests in soil but can occasionally be found nesting under stones in open areas.
This species may be readily distinguished from all other species of Manica by its black or dark brown head and gaster with a light brown to reddish yellow thorax and its glabrous and much more slender petiole and postpetiole. The propodeum of bradleyi is more angular than invidia.
Identification Keys including this Taxon
This species occurs in Oregon, the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, western Nevada and the Transverse Ranges in southern California.
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Montane, coniferous forest. Ranging from 4,000 feet to 10,000 feet in elevation.
This ant is the host of Manica parasitica in California.
Manica bradleyi, a montane forest species, may use the abundant mycorrhizal roots associated with their nests for food and the larvae may do the actual feeding, returning some of the digested food to the workers.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- bradleyi. Myrmica bradleyi Wheeler, W.M. 1909e: 77 (w.) U.S.A. Cole, 1957c: 210 (q.m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1960b: 6 (l.). Combination in Myrmica (Oreomyrma): Wheeler, W.M. 1914d: 120; in M. (Neomyrma): Emery, 1915d: 69 (footnote); in M. (Manica): Emery, 1921f: 43; in Manica: Weber, 1947: 440; Creighton, 1950a: 108. Senior synonym of calderoni: Wheeler, W.M. 1915a: 50.
- calderoni. Aphaenogaster (Neomyrma) calderoni Forel, 1914a: 275 (w.) U.S.A. Combination in Myrmica (Neomyrma): Emery, 1915d: 69 (footnote). Junior synonym of bradleyi: Wheeler, W.M. 1915a: 50.
Worker. - Length 4-7mm.
Allied to Manica rubida Latreille and Manica invidia Bolton. Head rectangular, as broad as long, with subparallel sides and straight posterior border. Mandibles moderately convex, pointed, with minutely denticulate blades. Clypeus somewhat convex in the middle, with nearly straight anterior border. Frontal area distinct. Antennal scapes simple, curved and feebly compressed at the base; funicular joints all longer than proad; club 5-jointed. Thorax rather slender, with pronounced mesoepinotal constriction; pro- and mesonotum evenly rounded i profile; propodeum unarmed, base slightly convex, passing through a distinct, but obtuse angle into the somewhat shorter, straight and sloping declivity. Petiole slender, fully three times as long as broad, in profile with a well-developed, cylindrical peduncle, armed with a small, acute, antero-ventral tooth, and surmounted by a low rounded node just behind the middle. Anterior slope of node concave, posterior more convex. Post-petiole fully one and one-half times as long as broad, subcampanulate; in profile with its upper surface rising in a gentle curve towards the posterior edge of the segment and then abruptly descending. Gaster elliptical, rather large.
Shining; head and thorax subopaque, petiole, postpetiole, gaster and legs glabrous. Mandibles densely striato-punctate. Clypeus, frontal area and head finely, longitudinally rugose, the rugae somewhat curved and diverging on the front but straight on the posterior portion of the head. Cheeks and posterior corners also coarsely punctate. Thorax finely rugose like the head, the rugae being transverse on the pronotum and base of epinotum, longitudinal on the pleurae and mesonotum. On the epinotal declivity they are faint or obsolete, and the surface is densely and finely punctate.
Hairs golden yellow, long, abundant and pointed, suberect or reclinate, covering the body and appendages throughout.
Mandibles, thorax, petiole and postpetiole brownish-yellow; head, mandibular denticles, gaster, legs and antennal scapes black; trochanters, bases of femora, knees, tips of tibiae, tarsi and antennal funiculi, except their clubs, yellowish-brown. In some specimens the mandibles are more or less infuscated, with paler masticatory borders; in certain individulas, also, the coxae are more or less yellowish like the thorax. Venter and sting brown or yellowish.
- Holotype and paratypes, worker, 9,500 feet, Alta Meadow, Tulare County, California, United States, Mr. J. Chester Bradley, Museum of Comparative Zoology; 15 specimens.
- Cole, A. C., Jr. 1957c. Descriptions of sexual castes of some ants in the genera Myrmica, Manica and Xiphomyrmex from the western United States (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 32: 208-213 PDF (page 210, queen, male described)
- Cook, T. W. 1953. The ants of California. Palo Alto, California: Pacific Books, 462 pp.
- Creighton, W. S. 1934. Descriptions of three new North American ants with certain ecological observations on previously described forms. Psyche (Camb.) 41: 185-200 PDF
- Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 1-585 PDF (page 105, Manica revived status as genus)(page 108, Combination in Manica)
- Emery, C. 1915k. Definizione del genere Aphaenogaster e partizione di esso in sottogeneri. Parapheidole e Novomessor nn. gg. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 19: 67-75 (page 69, Combination in M. (Neomyrma))
- Emery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7 (page 43, Combination in M. (Manica))
- Fales, H.M., Blum, M.S., Crewe, R.M. and J.M. Brand. 1972. Alarm pheromones in the genus Manica derived from the mandibular gland. Journal of Insect Physiology 18:1077-1088.
- Mallis, A. 1941. A list of the ants of California with notes on their habits and distribution. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 40:61-100.
- Weber, N. A. 1947b. A revision of the North American ants of the genus Myrmica Latreille with a synopsis of the Palearctic species. I. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 40: 437-474 PDF (page 440, Combination in Manica)
- Went, F.W., Wheeler, J. and Wheeler, G.C. 1972. Feeding and digestion in some ants (Veromessor and Manica). BioScience 22:82-88. PDF
- Wheeler, W. M. 1909e. A decade of North American Formicidae. J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 17: 77-90 PDF (page 77, worker described)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1914e. The American species of Myrmica allied to M. rubida Latreille. Psyche (Camb.) 21: 118-122 PDF (page 120, Combination in Myrmica (Oreomyrma))
- Wheeler, W. M. 1915a. Neomyrma versus Oreomyrma. A correction. Psyche (Camb.) 22: 50 PDF (page 50, senior synonym of calderoni)
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1960b. Supplementary studies on the larvae of the Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 62: 1-32 PDF (page 6, larva described)
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1970a. The natural history of Manica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 43:129-162. PDF
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1972b. Ant larvae of the subfamily Myrmicinae: second supplement on the tribes Myrmicini and Pheidolini. J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 7: 233-246 PDF
- Wheeler, G.C.; Wheeler, J. 1978. Mountain ants of Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 38: 379-396 PDF
- Wheeler, G. C. and J. Wheeler. 1986. The ants of Nevada. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles.