Messor structor

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Messor structor
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Stenammini
Genus: Messor
Species: M. structor
Binomial name
Messor structor
(Latreille, 1798)

Messor structor antweb1008070 p 1 high.jpg

Messor structor antweb1008070 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Subspecies
Synonyms

Identification

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (type locality), Hungary, Romania, Slovenia.

Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Habitat

A range of xeric habitats and, in some areas, open well drained anthropogenic habitats (lawns, abandoned fields, etc.).

Biology

Stoyanov et al. (2015) - Messor structor are harvester ants storing seeds in underground granaries. Being major seed consumers in xeric habitats they influence the vegetation by depleting and dispersing seeds (Azcarate, Peco 2003, MacMahon et al. 2000, Schlick-Steiner et al. 2005). According to Seifert (1996), Central European populations of the harvester ant genus Messor are currently considered to constitute a single species Messor structor. It has been reported that M. structor ants live mainly in polygynous colonies and could be members of unicolonial populations (Schlick-Steiner et al. 2005). Messor structor is one of the most widespread steppe species. It is well adapted to different conditions and occurs in all of Europe. In Bulgaria this ant is found all over the country in medium-sized populations and occur in plain desolate terrains, mountainous slopes, outskirts of mixed woodland zones and in open well-drained areas such as abandoned fields, pastures, and overgrown lawns.

This study examined genetic variability among populations of Messor structor from various localities (n=36 nests) in from Southern Bulgaria using isoenzymic analysis. Three of the four enzyme loci used were found to be polymorphic. Observed and expected heterozygosities (Ho and He) ranged from 0.0 to 0.111 and from 0.168 to 0.372, respectively. Nei’s (1972) genetic distance was found to range from 0.001 (between Boliarino and Lubenova mahala) to 0.462 (between Chirpan and Merichleri). The estimated mean F-IS and F-ST values from isozyme data were 0.8738 and 0.1432, respectively. Two of the studied populations were grouped separately in dendrograms as compared to all other populations which formed a large cluster consisting of three sub-clusters.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • structor. Formica structor Latreille, 1798: 46 (w.m.) FRANCE.
    • Latreille, 1802c: 237 (q.).
    • Combination in Manica: Jurine, 1807: 279.
    • Combination in Atta: Latreille, 1809: 130; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 174; Mayr, 1855: 464; Smith, F. 1858b: 162.
    • Combination in Myrmica: Nylander, 1856b: 85.
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 29.
    • Combination in A. (Messor): Forel, 1892i: 316.
    • Combination in Stenamma (Messor): Emery, 1898c: 126.
    • Combination in Messor: Emery, 1897f: 238; Ruzsky, 1903b: 315; Emery, 1908e: 455.
    • Subspecies of barbarus: Emery, 1908e: 455; Forel, 1910a: 9; Karavaiev, 1910b: 67; Forel, 1911d: 346; Emery, 1912f: 96; Karavaiev, 1912a: 10; Stitz, 1914: 69; Emery, 1914d: 156; Emery, 1915h: 1; Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1916: 170; Emery, 1916b: 143; Santschi, 1917e: 91; Escherich, 1917: 327; Menozzi, 1918: 83; Santschi, 1921a: 110; Menozzi, 1921: 26; Emery, 1921b: 210; Emery, 1921f: 73; Soudek, 1922: 34; Finzi, 1923: 3; Emery, 1924b: 12; Ceballos, 1956: 301.
    • Status as species: Latreille, 1802c: 236; Latreille, 1809: 130; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 174; Schilling, 1839: 56; Brullé, 1840: 84; Schenck, 1852: 113; Mayr, 1855: 464 (redescription); Nylander, 1856b: 85; Gredler, 1858: 30; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Roger, 1859: 253; Mayr, 1861: 66 (in key); Smith, F. 1861a: 35; Roger, 1863b: 29; Mayr, 1863: 397; Mayr, 1867a: 93 (redescription); Emery, 1869b: 17; Walker, 1871: 10; Forel, 1874: 74 (in key); André, 1874: 195 (in key); Mayr, 1877: 14; Emery, 1878b: 58; Emery & Forel, 1879: 461; Mayr, 1880: 33; Emery, 1881b: 534; André, 1883b: 353 (in key); Forel, 1886e: clxviii; Forel, 1889: 257; Nasonov, 1889: 37; Saunders, E. 1890: 204; Forel, 1892i: 316; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Forel, 1895d: 227; Ruzsky, 1896: 74; Emery, 1898c: 140; Ruzsky, 1902a: 235; Ruzsky, 1902d: 27; Ruzsky, 1903b: 315; Forel, 1904b: 373; Ruzsky, 1905b: 728; Forel, 1906c: 190; Forel, 1907e: 15; Forel, 1909c: 104; Forel, 1915d: 35 (in key); Bondroit, 1918: 150; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1923: 256; Müller, 1923b: 60; Finzi, 1924a: 13; Lomnicki, 1925b: 2; Wheeler, W.M. 1926: 2; Donisthorpe, 1926a: 7; Menozzi, 1926b: 181; Karavaiev, 1926b: 101; Karavaiev, 1927a: 286; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927a: 92 (in key); Karavaiev, 1927c: 261 (in key); Kutter, 1927: 99; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929d: 12; Finzi, 1929: 90; Karavaiev, 1929b: 209; Finzi, 1930d: 312; Cori & Finzi, 1931: 238; Santschi, 1931a: 4; Soudek, 1931: 8; Arnol'di, 1933b: 600 (in key); Karavaiev, 1934: 108; Grandi, 1935: 100; Zimmermann, 1935: 14; Finzi, 1936: 160; Finzi, 1939c: 155; Donisthorpe, 1950e: 1059; Consani & Zangheri, 1952: 40; Bernard, 1955a: 361 (in key); Bernard, 1956b: 258; Baroni Urbani, 1964a: 2; Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 41; Baroni Urbani, 1964c: 150; Bernard, 1967: 144 (redescription); Baroni Urbani, 1968b: 436; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 64; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 66; Baroni Urbani, 1974: 232; Collingwood, 1978: 81 (in key); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981: 427; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 271 (in key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990b: 156 (in key); Arakelian, 1994: 38; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Mei, 1995: 762; Cagniant & Espadaler, 1998: 423; Czechowski, et al. 2002: 37; Bračko, 2006: 137; Cagnaint, 2006a: 197; Bračko, 2007: 17; Seifert, 2007: 214; Werner & Wiezik, 2007: 140, 147; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007: 231; Wetterer, et al. 2007: 14; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 139; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 489; Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 15; Boer, 2010: 61; Csösz, et al. 2011: 56; Legakis, 2011: 11; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 515; Czechowski, et al. 2012: 119; Borowiec, L. 2014: 112; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399 (redescription).
    • Senior synonym of aedificator: Mayr, 1855: 464; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; André, 1874: 203 (in list); Forel, 1874: 101 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Emery, 1921f: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 252; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: supplementary material, 6.
    • Senior synonym of darianus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
    • Senior synonym of jakowlevi: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
    • Senior synonym of lapidum: Nylander, 1856b: 85; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Smith, F. 1861a: 35; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; Forel, 1874: 100 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Ruzsky, 1905b: 728; Emery, 1921f: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399.
    • Senior synonym of romanus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Bolton, 1995b: 257.
    • Senior synonym of rubella: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
    • Senior synonym of rufitarsis Fabricius: Nylander, 1856b: 85; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; Forel, 1874: 101 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Nasonov, 1889: 37; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Ruzsky, 1905b: 728; Emery, 1921f: 73; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 54; Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990a: 154; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 115; Bolton, 1995b: 256; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 139; Csösz, et al. 2011: 56; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399.
    • Senior synonym of subpolitus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
    • Senior synonym of turanicus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Bolton, 1995b: 257; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
    • Current subspecies: nominal plus platyceras, tyrrhenus.
  • lapidum. Formica lapidum Fabricius, 1804: 407 (w.) AUSTRIA.
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 29.
    • Junior synonym of rufitarsis Fabricius: Emery, 1921b: 211.
    • Junior synonym of structor: Nylander, 1856b: 85; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Smith, F. 1861a: 35; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; Forel, 1874: 100 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Ruzsky, 1905b: 728; Emery, 1921f: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 255; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399.
  • rufitarsis. Formica rufitarsis Fabricius, 1804: 406 (w.) AUSTRIA.
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 29.
    • Combination in Messor: Emery, 1921b: 211.
    • Subspecies of barbarus: Emery, 1921b: 211.
    • Subspecies of structor: Santschi, 1926f: 290; Santschi, 1927d: 247; Menozzi, 1933b: 54; Santschi, 1934d: 275; Santschi, 1939c: 6; Pisarski, 1975: 16.
    • Status as species: Röszler, 1942a: 51; Röszler, 1942b: 32; Röszler, 1951: 88; Bernard, 1955a: 361 (in key); Bernard, 1956b: 258; Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 41; Pisarski, 1967: 383; Bernard, 1967: 144 (redescription); Kutter, 1968a: 59; Pisarski, 1970: 306; Arnol’di, 1970a: 79; Tarbinsky, 1976: 54; van Boven, 1977: 88; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 63; Kutter, 1977c: 82; Arnol'di, 1977b: 1643 (in key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 537 (in key); Bernard, 1981b: 143.
    • Junior synonym of structor: Nylander, 1856b: 85; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Smith, F. 1861a: 35; Roger, 1863b: 29; Mayr, 1863: 397; Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Nasonov, 1889: 37; Emery, 1921f: 73; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 54; Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990a: 154; Bolton, 1995b: 256; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399.
  • aedificator. Formica aedificator Schilling, 1839: 56 (w.) POLAND.
    • [Misspelled as aedificans by Mayr, 1855: 464, Smith, F. 1858b: 162.]
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 29.
    • Junior synonym of rufitarsis Fabricius: Emery, 1921b: 211; Pisarski, 1975: 16.
    • Junior synonym of structor: Mayr, 1855: 464; Smith, F. 1858b: 162; Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 29; André, 1874: 203 (in list); Forel, 1874: 101 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 462; Dalla Torre, 1893: 105; Emery, 1921f: 73; Bolton, 1995b: 252; Radchenko, 2016: 171; Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: supplementary material, 6.
  • rubella. Messor platyceras var. rubella Crawley, 1920a: 164 (s.w.m.) IRAN.
    • Junior synonym of clivorum: Emery, 1921b: 210 (footnote); Bolton, 1995b: 256 (error).
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
  • turanicus. Messor structor subsp. turanicus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927a: 91 (in key) (w.) UZBEKISTAN.
    • Subspecies of structor: Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929d: 14.
    • Synonym of darianus: Santschi, 1927d: 247; Pisarski, 1967: 383; Pisarski, 1970: 306; Tarbinsky, 1976: 54; Arnol'di, 1977b: 1644.
    • [Note: Santschi, Pisarski, Tarbinsky, and Arnol’di all give darianus as senior synonym, but turanicus has priority (Bolton, 1995b: 258).]
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Bolton, 1995b: 258; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
  • darianus. Messor rufitarsis subsp. darianus Pisarski, 1967: 383 (w.) UZBEKISTAN.
    • [First available use of Messor structor st. rufitarsis var. darianus Santschi, 1926f: 291 (w.) UZBEKISTAN; unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
    • [Misspelled as dariagus by He & Song, 2009: 724.]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Santschi, 1927d: 247; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929d: 22.
    • Material referred to structor by Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927a: 92 (in key).
    • Subspecies of rufitarsis Fabricius: Tarbinsky, 1976: 54; He & Song, 2009: 724.
    • Synonym of turanicus: Santschi, 1927d: 247; Pisarski, 1967: 383; Pisarski, 1970: 306; Tarbinsky, 1976: 54; Arnol'di, 1977b: 1644 (in key).
    • [Note: Santschi, Pisarski, Tarbinsky, and Arnol’di, all give darianus as senior synonym, but turanicus has priority (Bolton, 1995b: 253).]
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Radchenko, 2016: 171.
  • jakowlevi. Messor rufitarsis subsp. jakowlevi Arnol'di, 1977b: 1643 (w.) UKRAINE.
    • [First available use of Aphaenogaster (Messor) barbarus subsp. capitatus var. jakowlevi Ruzsky, 1905b: 750 (w.) UKRAINE; unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
    • [Misspelled as jakovlevi by Arnol’di & Dlussky, 1978: 537 (in key).]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1908e: 450; Emery, 1921f: 72; Emery, 1922c: 96; Karavaiev, 1927a: 287.
    • Subspecies of rufitarsis Fabricius: Arnol’di & Dlussky, 1978: 537 (in key); Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: supplementary material, 8 (nomen dubium).
    • [Note: because Steiner, Csösz, et al. 2018: 399, establish rufitarsis Fabricius as a junior synonym of structor, the synonymy of jakowlevi under structor, below, still stands.]
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 114; Bolton, 1995b: 254.
    • Material of the unavailable name salina referred here by Arnol'di, 1977b: 1643 (in key).
  • subpolitus. Messor structor var. subpolitus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927a: 92 (in key) (w.) KYRGYZSTAN, UZBEKISTAN.
    • Subspecies of structor: Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929d: 15.
    • Junior synonym of clivorum: Tarbinsky, 1976: 56; Bolton, 1995b: 257.
    • Junior synonym of structor: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 224; Radchenko, 2016: 171.

Type Material

Description

References

  • Agosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987a. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 60: 51-62 (page 54, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Arakelian, G. R. 1994. Fauna of the Republic of Armenia. Hymenopterous insects. Ants (Formicidae). Erevan: Gitutium, 153 pp. (page 39, Senior synonym of sevani)
  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 115, Senior synonym of rufitarsis, page 114, Senior synonym of mutica, novaki and varrialei)
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1971c. Catalogo delle specie di Formicidae d'Italia (Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia X). Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 50: 5-287 (page 66, Status as species)
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 144, Status as species)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 150, Status as species)
  • Casevitz-Weulersse, J. 1990b. Étude systématique de la myrmécofaune corse (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (Première partie). Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Sect. A Zool. Biol. Écol. Anim. (4) 12: 135-163 (page 154, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990 [1989]. Ants of Turkmenistan. Ashkhabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. (page 224, Senior synonym of clivorum (and its junior synonyms rubella, and subpolitus), jakowlevi, tataricus, turanicus (and its junior synonym darianus), and material of the unavailable name romana referred here.)
  • Emery, C. 1897g. Anhang. Verzeichniss der auf der zweiten Reise nach Kleinasien (1897) gesammelten Ameisen, mit einer Neubeschreibung. P. 239 in: Escherich, K. Zur Kenntniss der Myrmecophilen Kleinasiens. I. Coleoptera. Wien. Entomol. Ztg. 16:229-239. (page 238, Combination in Messor)
  • Emery, C. 1898c. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der palaearktischen Ameisen. Öfvers. Fin. Vetensk.-Soc. Förh. 20: 124-151 (page 126, Combination in Stenamma (Messor))
  • Emery, C. 1908f. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. (Hym.) Teil III. Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1908: 437-465 (page 455, Subspecies of barbarus)
  • Emery, C. 1914c. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Bearbeitung von O. Leonhard's Sammlungen. 5. Südeuropäische Ameisen (Hym.). Entomol. Mitt. 3: 156-159 (page 156, Subspecies of barbarus)
  • Emery, C. 1921b. Formiche raccolte a Budrum (Anatolia) da Raffaele Varriale, Cap. medico nella R. Marina. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. "Giacomo Doria" 49[=(3)(9): 208-218 (page 210, Senior synonym of tyrrhena)
  • Emery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7 (page 73, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Emery, C. 1924b. Alcune formiche di Malta. Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 56: 11-12 (page 12, Subspecies of barbarus)
  • Finzi, B. 1924a. Formiche dell'isola d'Elba e Monte Argentario. Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 56: 12-15 (page 13, Status as species)
  • Finzi, B. 1930d. Zoologische Forschungsreise nach den Jonischen Inseln und dem Peloponnes. XII. Teil. Die Ameisen der Jonischen Inseln. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Abt. I 139: 309-319 (page 312, Status as species)
  • Forel, A. 1892j. Die Ameisenfauna Bulgariens. (Nebst biologischen Beobachtungen.). Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 42: 305-318 (page 316, Combination in A. (Messor))
  • Forel, A. 1910a. Glanures myrmécologiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 54: 6-32 (page 9, Subspecies of barbarus)
  • Forel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12(B Beilage: 1-77 (page 35, Status as species)
  • Karavaiev, V. 1934. The fauna of the family Formicidae (ants) of the Ukraine. Tr. Inst. Zool. Biol. Vseukr. Akad. Nauk Ser. 1 Pr. Syst. Faun. 1934: 1-164 (page 108, Status as species)
  • Khaustov, A.A. 2009. New and Little Known Species of Mites of the Genus Caesarodispus (Acari, Heterostigmata, Microdispidae) Associated with Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Ukraine. Vestnik zoologii, 43(5): 387–393 (DOI 10.2478/v10058-009-0017-7).
  • Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, N. N. 1927a. Vorläufige Uebersicht über die mittelasiatischen Formen der Gattung Messor (Hym., Form.). Folia Myrmecol. Termit. 1: 89-94 (page 92, Status as species)
  • Latreille, P. A. 1798. Essai sur l'histoire des fourmis de la France. Brive: F. Bourdeaux, 50 pp. (page 46, worker, male described)
  • Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des insectes. Tome 3. Familles naturelles des genres. Paris: F. Dufart, xii + 467 pp. (page 237, queen described)
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 464, Combination in Atta, Senior synonym of aedificator)
  • Mayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 13: 385-460 (page 397, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Menozzi, C. 1918. Primo contributo alla conoscenza della fauna mirmecologica del Modenese. Atti Soc. Nat. Mat. Modena (5) 4: 81-88 (page 83, Subspecies of barbarus)
  • Menozzi, C. 1926b. Zur Kenntnis der Ameisenfauna der Balearen. Zool. Anz. 66: 180-182 (page 181, Status as species)
  • Nasonov, N. V. 1889. Contribution to the natural history of the ants primarily of Russia. 1. Contribution to the ant fauna of Russia. Izv. Imp. Obshch. Lyubit. Estestvozn. Antropol. Etnogr. Imp. Mosk. Univ. 58: 1-78 (page 37, Status as species, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Nylander, W. 1856b. Synopsis des Formicides de France et d'Algérie. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (4) 5: 51-109 (page 85, Combination in Myrmica, Senior synonym of lapidum, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Rigato, F.; Toni, I. 2011. Short notes 21. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Pp. 873-882 in: Nardi, G.; Whitmore, D.; Bardiani, M.; Birtele, D.; Mason, F.; Spada, L.; Cerretti, P. (eds.) 2011. Biodiversity of Marganai and Montimannu (Sardinia). Research in the framework of the ICP Forests network. Conservazione Habitat Invertebrati, 5. Sommacampagna, Verona: Cierre Edizioni, 896 pp.
  • Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 29, Combination in Aphaenogaster)
  • Ruzsky, M. 1903b. Essay on the myrmecofauna of the Kirghiz steppe. Tr. Rus. Entomol. Obshch. 36: 294-316 (page 315, Combination in Messor)
  • Ruzsky, M. 1905b. The ants of Russia. (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Systematics, geography and data on the biology of Russian ants. Part I. Tr. Obshch. Estestvoispyt. Imp. Kazan. Univ. 38(4-6 6: 1-800 (page 728, Status as species)
  • Santschi, F. 1917e. Races et variétés nouvelles du Messor barbarus L. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 8: 89-94 (page 91, Subspecies of barbarus)
  • Santschi, F. 1921a. Notes sur les fourmis paléarctiques. II. Fourmis d'Asie Mineure récoltées par M. H. Gadeau de Kerville. Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 21: 110-116 (page 110, Subspecies of barbarus)
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 162, Senior synonym of rufitarsis)
  • Steiner, F.M., Csősz, S., Markó, B., Gamisch, A., Rinnhofer, L., Folterbauer, C., Hammerle, S., Stauffer, C., Arthofer, W. & Schlick-Steiner, B.C. 2018. Turning one into five: Integrative taxonomy uncovers complex evolution of cryptic species in the harvester ant Messor “structor”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 127: 387–404 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.04.005).
  • Stoyanov, I., T. Staykova, A. Stojanova, P. Vasileva, and E. Ivanova. 2015. Isoenzymic Genetic Variability in Populations of Messor structor (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Bulgaria. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 67:337-344.