Monomorium kiliani

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Monomorium kiliani
Monomorium kiliani
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Solenopsidini
Genus: Monomorium
Species: M. kiliani
Binomial name
Monomorium kiliani
Forel, 1902

Monomorium kiliani side view

Monomorium kiliani top view

Specimen labels

Synonyms

Monomorium kilianii includes a high proportion of vegetable material in its diet (Andersen 1991a: 498, 499) and may even constitute a minor pest in orchards. Label data on specimens from Lucindale, South Australia, indicate that the ants were attacking young buds on apple trees, causing deformity in the growing fruit. The ants also attacked fallen fruit. (Heterick 2001)

Identification

Heterick (2001) - A member of the kilianii group. Monomorium kilianii has a uniform morphology throughout its range, though the cuticle may be lighter or darker in some specimens. Monomorium kilianii obscurellum simply represents one of the darker forms, and is otherwise identical with the typical morph. Monomorium tambourinense, however, represents a distinct species that can be distinguished from M. kilianii by the features noted in the worker key. Moreover, the head capsule is generally darker than the promesonotum when M. kilianii is viewed from the front, whereas the head capsule of M. tambourinense is lighter in colour or the same colour as the promesonotum, when viewed similarly.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Australasian Region: Australia (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • kiliani. Monomorium kiliani Forel, 1902h: 441 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Heterick, 2001: 386 (q.m.). Combination in M. (Notomyrmex): Emery, 1922e: 169; in Chelaner: Ettershank, 1966: 97; in Monomorium: Taylor, 1987b: 3. Senior synonym of obscurella: Heterick, 2001: 385.
  • obscurella. Monomorium kiliani var. obscurella Viehmeyer, 1925a: 27 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Combination in Chelaner: Ettershank, 1966: 97; in Monomorium: Taylor, 1987b: 3. Subspecies of kiliani: Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 57. Junior synonym of kiliani: Heterick, 2001: 385.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Heterick (2001) - HML 1.83-2.84; HL 0.64-0.94; HW 0.58-0.88; Cel 81-92; SL 0.48-0.75; SI 79-96; PW 0.35-0.59 (46 measured).

Head. Head rounded; vertex planar, or convex; frons smooth and shining with combination of incurved decumbent and subdecumbent setulae and erect and suberect setae. Compound eyes elliptical; (viewed from front) compound eyes set in anterior half of head capsule; (viewed laterally) compound eyes set posterior of midline of head capsule, or set at midline of head capsule; eye moderate, eye width 0.5-1.5x greatest width of antennal scape. Antennal segments 12; club three-segmented. Anteromedial clypeal margin convex, straight or slightly emarginate, median clypeal carinae indistinct. Longest lateral anterior clypeal setae long, extending beyond dorsal margin of closed mandibles. Posteromedial clypeal margin extending slightly posteriad of posterior surface of antennal fossae. Anterior tentorial pits situated nearer antennal fossae than mandibular insertions. Frontal lobes parallel straight. Venter of head capsule without elongate, basket-shaped setae. Palp formula 2,3. Maximum number of mandibular teeth and denticles: six; mandibles (viewed from front) triangular and striate, with piliferous punctures (striae partly effaced in pale individuals); basal tooth not enlarged; basal angle indistinct; apical and basal mandibular margins meeting in tooth or denticle.

Alitrunk. Promesonotal sculpture present in form of microreticulation and striolae on and around katepisternum, otherwise promesonotum smooth and shining; dorsal promesonotal face evenly convex; erect and suberect promesonotal setae greater than 10; setulae decumbent and subdecumbent. Mesonotal suture absent, or visible externally as faint ridge. Metanotal groove present as distinct and deeply impressed trough between promesonotum and propodeurn. Propodeal sculpture present as faint microreticulation with few striae, mainly on lower lateral surface; dorsal propodeal face sloping posteriad, with wedge-shaped flattening or shallow depression that is widest between propodeal angles; processes absent (propodeum smoothly rounded in profile or with slight hump at propodeal angle); lobes present as blunt flanges. Propodeal angle absent; declivitous face of propodeum flat. Erect and suberect propodeal setae 5-10; propodeal setulae appressed. Propodeal spiracle lateral and about midway between metanotal groove and declivitous face of propodeum; vestibule conspicuous through cuticle.

Petiole and postpetiole. Petiolar spiracle lateral and slightly anteriad of petiolar node. Petiolar node cuneate, dorsally rounded, or tumular and inclined posteriad; sculpture absent, petiolar node smooth and shining. Ratio of greatest node breadth (viewed from front) to greatest node width (viewed in profile )near 4:3 to near 1:1. Anteroventral process always absent or vestigial. Ventral lobe always absent. Height ratio of petiole to postpetiole near 4:3; height-length ratio of postpetiole near 4:3 to near 1:1. Sculpture absent on dorsum, at least: postpetiole smooth and shining. Ventral process absent or vestigial.

Gaster. Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of combination of appressed setulae and longer, erect and suberect setae.

General characters. Workers most commonly with head chocolate, promesonotum tan, remaining body parts brown: other individuals more uniformly brown or yellow: all individuals with tawny yellow mandibles. Worker caste monomorphic.

Queen

Heterick (2001) - HML 3.88-4.63; HL 1.03-1.24; HW 1.01-1.24; Cei 92-105; SL 0.78-0.98; SI 76-84; PW 1.11-1.40 (8 measured).

Head. Head square or rectangular, or cordate; vertex planar; frons striolate between frontal carinae, otherwise smooth and shining with a combination of decumbent and subdecumbent setulae and erect and suberect setae. Compound eyes elliptical; (viewed from front) compound eyes set in anterior half of head capsule; (viewed laterally) compound eyes set at midline of head capsule; eye large, eye width greater than 1.5 x greatest width of antennal scape.

Alitrunk. Mesoscutum in profile convex anteriad; thereafter flattened. Mesoscutal pilosity consisting of decumbent and subdecumbent setulae anteriad and erect and suberect setae posteriad; dorsal appearance of mesoscutum smooth and shining; length-width ratio of mesoscutum and scutellum combined near 4:3. Axillae separated by distance less than half greatest width of scutellum. Propodeal sculpture present as uniform rugosity, with well defined costulae on declivitous face ofpropodeum; dorsal propodeal face flattened. Propodeal processes present on posterior propodeal angles as small denticles or sharp flanges; lobes present as blunt flanges. Propodeal angle present. Erect and suberect propodeal setae 5-1 0; propodeal setulae decumbent and subdecumbent. Propodeal spiracle lateral and nearer metanotal groove than declivitous face of propodeum.

Wing. Wing veins tubular and strongly sclerotised; vein m-cu present as an entire vein enclosing first discoidal cell; vein cu-a present.

Petiole and postpetiole. Petiolar spiracle lateral and positioned in pedicel well anteriad of petiolar node. Petiolar node cuneate, dorsally rounded; sculpture present in form of microreticulation. Ratio of greatest node breadth (viewed from front) to greatest node width (viewed in profile) near 4:3 to near 1:1. Anteroventral process distinct in some individuals as slender carina that tapers posteriad. Height ratio of petiole to postpetiole near 1:1 to near 4:3; height-length ratio of postpetiole near 2: 1 to near 4:3. Sculpture absent on dorsum, at least: postpetiole smooth and shining; ventral process absent or vestigial.

Gaster. Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of combination of appressed setulae and longer, erect and suberect setae.

General characters. Colour brown to tawny orange, gaster amber. Brachypterous alates not seen. Ergatoid or worker-female intercastes not seen.

Male

Heterick (2001) - HML 2.59-2.79; HL 0.62-0.72; HW 0.62-0.72; Cel 100; SL 0.21-0.23; SI 32-33; PW 0.67-0.75 (2 measured).

Head. Head width-meso scuta! width ratio near 1:1. Compound eyes protuberant and elliptical; (viewed laterally) compound eyes set at midline of head capsule; ocelli not turreted. Ratio of length of first funicular segment of antenna to length of second funicular segment near 1:2 to near 1:3. Maximum number of mandibular teeth and denticles: four.

Alitrunk. Mesoscutum in profile evenly convex; dorsal appearance of mesoscutum striolate and microreticulate; mesoscutal pilosity consisting of numerous short setae, incurved medially. Parapsidal furrows vestigial; notauli present. Axillae separated by distance of about half greatest width of scutellum.

Wing. Wing veins tubular and strongly sclerotised; vein m-cu present as an entire vein enclosing first discoidal cell; vein cu-a present.

Petiole and postpetiole. Petiolar spiracle lateral and slightly anteriad of petiolar node. Sculpture absent, petiolar node smooth and shining; ratio of greatest node breadth (viewed from front) to greatest node width (viewed in profile) near 3:4. Anteroventral process always absent or vestigial; ventral lobe always absent. Height-length ratio of postpetiole near 2:1; sculpture absent on dorsum, at least: postpetiole smooth and shining, or present in form of microreticulation; ventral process absent or vestigial.

Gaster. Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of combination of appressed setulae and longer, erect and suberect setae.

General characters. Colour chocolate.

Type Material

References

  • Emery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B: 95-206 (page 169, Combination in M. (Notomyrmex))
  • Ettershank, G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 73-171 (page 97, Combination in Chelaner)
  • Forel, A. 1902j. Fourmis nouvelles d'Australie. Rev. Suisse Zool. 10: 405-548 (page 441, worker described)
  • Heterick, B. E. 2001. Revision of the Australian ants of the genus Monomorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy. 15:353-459. PDF (page 386, queen, male described; page 385, Senior synonym of obscurella)
  • Taylor, R. W. 1987b. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). First supplement, 10 July, 1987. CSIRO Div. Entomol. Rep. 41(Suppl. .1: 1-5 (page 3, Combination in Monomorium)