Myrmoteras iriodum

AntWiki - Where Ant Biologists Share Their Knowledge
Jump to: navigation, search
Myrmoteras iriodum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Myrmoteratini
Genus: Myrmoteras
Species: M. iriodum
Binomial name
Myrmoteras iriodum
Moffett, 1985

Myrmoteras iriodum casent0003210 profile 1.jpg

Myrmoteras iriodum casent0003210 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Nests are small, typically less than 20 workers, and have been found under rocks in forest habitat.

Identification

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo (type locality), Indonesia, Malaysia.

Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Ito et al. (2017) were able to collect whole colonies. Nests were typically found under stones in the forest floor and were collected in Ulu Gombak (3°19’N; 101°45’E; 250 m a.s.l.), Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia between 1992 and 2016. Colonies are monogynous and queens found colonies non-claustrally. Colony size is very small, workers per colony = 8.2 + 7.1 (+ SD), N = 11, maximum 22. Ovariole number for queens is small with a total of just four per individual.

Reproductive queens and larvae feed on liquid food from workers and solid prey items. Second, the condition of immatures of M. iriodum in the nest chamber seems different from other species in the genus. M. toro and M. jaitrongi make clusters of eggs and small larvae, whereas M. iriodum never makes such clusters inside their nest. Workers of M. toro often held a larva or pupa by gently gripping them between the mandibles or immobilized them with their forelegs (Moffett 1986). Such behavior was rare in M. iriodum, as larvae and pupae usually laid on the nest floor.

Fig. 1. A founding colony of Myrmoteras iriodum. Note that body size of the first worker (W1) was not nanitic, but was similar in size to the founding queen (Q). W2: the second worker just after emergence from cocoon.

Foraging and contact with prey: Workers kept their mandibles fully opened (ca. 280 degrees) most of the time they spent in the foraging arena. When they encountered prey animals, they slowly approached them. If prey animals moved fast, the workers chased the prey a bit but usually gave up. When they could be sufficiently close to have the prey within reach of the tips of the trigger hairs, they strike the prey by very quickly snapping the elongate mandibles. Closing the mandibles was powerful enough to kill the soft body arthropods they hunt for. When hunting for prey, workers never used formic acid, although they do possess a functional venom gland as is typical for formicine ants (Billen et al., 2015). When offered small (body length ca. 0.4 mm) and large springtails (ca. 1.3 mm) simultaneously, the ants preferred to attack the smaller prey. Beside springtails, they also attack young termite nymphs and small cricket nymphs. Foraging workers and virgin queens licked diluted sugar water in the foraging arena.

Prey feeding: Foraging ants brought prey items back to the nest chamber, and began to masticate prey by holding it between the tips of the mandibles. During prey mastication, workers and queens crossed the mandibles repeatedly, and sometimes adjusted the position of prey with their forelegs. They often fed on the masticated prey by bringing it with their forelegs to the mouthparts. After the foragers had fed on the prey they retrieved, they passed the masticated prey on to the larvae, fellow workers or both virgin and reproductive queens. When prey size was large, a few ants cooperatively masticated it. The queens and workers often fed on the masticated prey that was placed on the larval mouthparts. Inside the nest chamber, stomodeal trophallaxis among female individuals was often observed. Mated queens frequently received trophallaxis from workers, however, feeding directly on prey brought by workers was also observed.

Brood care: Larvae and pupae were scattered on the nest floor. No clusters of eggs and microlarvae were organized. The reproductive queen rarely showed brood care, except for egg care just after oviposition. Workers and dealated virgin queens often inserted their mandibles between the nest floor and larvae, opening the mandibles ca. 30 degrees and then quickly closed them, this behavior was repeated a few times. The function of this behavior, however, was unclear.

Oviposition: Egg-laying by the queens was observed only once. The queen bent her abdomen forward underneath the thorax and extruded an egg from the tip of the abdomen. The egg was picked up by the queen herself with the mandibles.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • iriodum. Myrmoteras (Myrmoteras) iriodum Moffett, 1985b: 24, figs. 13, 17 (w.q.) BORNEO.

Description

References