| Neoponera bactronica|
(Fernandes, De Oliveira & Delabie, 2014)
Nothing is known about the biology of Neoponera bactronica.
Fernandes et al. (2014) - Head strongly punctate on frontal face; notopropodeal groove strongly marked on dorsum; petiole without striae and longer than high in lateral view (NIl > 118.00).
The worker of Neoponera bactronica is easily separated from other species of the N. foetida complex by its petiole, which is broad, thickened, and slightly curved at the apex. Neoponera villosa can be differentiated from N. bactronica by the vertical anterior face and the broadly convex dorsum of the petiole; both characters are absent in N. bactronica. Another useful character enabling separation is the anterior margin of clypeus, concave medially, without striae in N. villosa, while in N. bactronica it is striate and convex. Lucas et al. (2002), using morphometrics such as the length and height of the petiole, were able to separate three different species (provisionally named by them Pvv, Pvi1, Pvi2). After the analyses Lucas et al. (2002) considered Pvi2 as a new species provisionally named N. subversa, but this species was not described. Here we describe this species as N. bactronica since MacKay & MacKay (2010) referred the unavailable N. subversa (nomen nudum) to Neoponera curvinodis. Pachycondyla bactronica and N. curvinodis are very different. Neoponera curvinodis has the anterior petiolar face strongly curved, mandibles smooth and shiny and the clypeus with strong longitudinal striations, while N. bactronica has the mandibles opaque with small punctures and the clypeus has fine striation. Other useful characters for the separation of the males of the two species are the petiolar carina: N. curvinodis has a carina on the posterolateral edges of the petiole and in N. bactronica the carina is absent. The second character is the rounded nature of the petiole. While the sternopetiolar and sternopostpetiolar processes consist of an acute well-developed keel in N. curvinodis, in N. bactronica this trait is reduced. In addition, the pubescence found in males of N. bactronica is denser than that of N. curvinodis and the gaster is yellow, which was not observed in N. bactronica. The genitalia were dissected from dried males, and for this reason some parts are dark and broken. Pachycondyla bactronica, has a wide distribution, being found from Costa Rica to southern Brazil. The species shows little variation in color, although individuals collected closer to the equator circle are darker brown.
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Queens have yet to be collected for this species.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- bactronica. Pachycondyla bactronica Fernandes, De Oliveira & Delabie, 2014: 136, figs. 1-14, 106, 107 (w.m.) BRAZIL. Combination in Neoponera: Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 151.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Measurements (holotype in parenthesis), paratypes, and non-types (n = 108): SL: 2.06-3.26 (2.96); HW: 2.25-3.05 (2.85); HL: 2.03-3.50 (3.20); PW: 1.47-2.17 (1.87); WL: 3.63-5.15 (4.93); NLd: 0.60-1.20 (1.10); NWd: 0.96-1.56 (1.26); NHl: 1.00-1.50 (1.30); NLl: 1.27-1.77 (1.67); NIl: 118.00-127.00 (128.46); SI: 91.55-106.88 (103.86).
Head: antennal scape relatively long (SI > 91.55 mm); mandible with nearly 15 teeth on masticatory margin; posterior margin of head moderately concave in full-face view; posterior border of head convex in lateral view; eye situated near of the anterolateral margin of head; well developed malar carina; clypeus with fine longitudinal striations medially.
Mesosoma: tarsus of mid and hind legs brown with row of golden setae on ventral surface; pronotal carina sharp and very well developed; mesonotum broadly ovate, half the width of the pronotum; notopropodeal groove deep and developed on dorsum; well developed propodeal carina.
Petiole longer than high in lateral view, subquadrate and robust, with basal region wider than apical in lateral view; dorsum broadly rounded in posterior view, anterior face slightly concave at apex; ster-nopetiolar process forming anterior bilobed keel separated by carina.
Gaster: sternopostpetiolar process bilobed and not separated from postpetiole.
Sculpture, pilosity and color: integument of head black and with punctations on frontal surface; golden pubescence, long and short hairs mixed on frons; antennal scape covered by golden pubescence; masticatory border black-opaque and scarcely punctate; masticatory borders of mandible with short golden hairs; integument of mesosoma black, scarcely punctate; anterior basitarsus and tarsus of the foreleg with dense golden pubescence on ventral surface; arolium brown; integument of petiole brown and scarcely punctate; integument of gaster brown and punctate; tergites covered with golden pubescence and long golden hairs; hypopygidium and pygidium with long golden hairs and weakly punctate. Appressed golden pubescence abundant on most surfaces, especially on mesosoma, petiole and gaster; erect hairs abundant on most surfaces, including dorsal and ventral surfaces of head, antennal scapes, posterior border of head, dorsum of mesosoma, dorsum of petiole, all surfaces of gaster. Hairs on legs either erect or suberect.
Clypeus strongly convex and punc-tate; posteropropodeum strongly concave; petiole subqua-drate, longer than high (NIl > 150.00); sternopostpetiolar process without carina; dense golden pubescence covering surface.
(n = 03): HW: 2.10-2.17; HL: 1.50-1.54; PW: 1.66-1.70; WL: 4.60-4.65; NLd: 0.93-0.95; NWd: 0.89-0.91; NLl: 1.25-1.26; NHl: 0.81-0.84; NIl: 150.00-154.00.
Head: mandibles tiny and poorly develop-ed; median face of clypeus strongly convex and punctate.
Mesosoma: tarsal claws with median tooth and golden pubescence; arolium brown; pronotum reduced with pronotal carina absent; parapsidal su-tures present on scutum; Mayrian sutures with Y form on dorsum, with deep central region between Mayrian sutures; deep suture separating scutum from scutellum; axial region concave and covered by oblique striae; metanotum reduced; posteropropodeum strongly concave.
Petiole: dorsal face shiny, with long and short golden hairs; integument brown; petiole longer than high (NHl: 0.81; NLl: 1.25), without lateral carina, with apex slightly oval in dorsal view; sternopetiolar process poorly developed, forming anterior keel.
Gaster: sternopostpetiolar process consisting of lobate projection without carina; pygidial spine and cercus exposed; pygidial spine down-turned and well developed.
Genitalia: as the diagnosis for N. foetida complex.
Sculpture, pilosity and color: most sur-faces finely covered with coarse punctures and moderately shining; integument of head black, nearly brown, surface covered with long and short golden erect hairs; dense silver and golden pubescence near the eyes, antennae and clypeus; labial palps covered by sparse golden pubescence; mandible with basidorsal area brown; integument of meso-soma black, nearly brown, surface densely covered with silver and gold pubescence; wings brown and opaque; legs brown, covered with silver and golden pubescence; ante-rior, median and posterior basitarsus and tarsus brown with dense golden pubescence on ventral surface; median and posterior tarsus with row of golden setae on ventral sur-face; integument of petiole black, nearly brown; integument of gaster black, nearly brown; tergites and sternites covered by golden and silver pubescence mixed with long golden hairs. Surfaces covered with dense golden pubescence, and erect golden hairs are abundant on the head, mesosoma, petiole and gaster. Appressed golden pubescence on most surfaces.
Holotype (worker, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo): Brazil: Bahia, Ilhéus, CEPEC Genética, PI24 bis Phenotype 2, XI.1998, leg. D. Fresneau. Paratypes: Brazil: Bahia, Ilhéus, CEPEC Genética, PI24 bis Phenotype 2, XI.1998, leg. D. Fresneau, 1 worker (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia); Ilhéus, #4905, 17.I.1995, leg. Arouca J., 1 worker (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna); Ilhéus, CEPEC#4587, 15.X.1986, leg. P. Terra, 1 ♂ (MZSP); Ilhéus, CEPEC#4587, 23.II. 1988, leg. P. Terra, 1 ♂ (INPA); Bahia, Ilhéus, CEPEC, XI.1998, leg. D. Fresneau, 1 ♂ (Laboratório de Mirmecologia CEPEC / CPDC); Ilhéus, CEPEC, XI.1998, leg. D. Fresneau, 2 workers (CPDC); Ilhéus, CEPEC, 6.XI.2007, leg. A.F.R. Carmo & I. C. Nascimento, 1 worker (Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi).
The specific name honors the field technician José Crispim Soares do Carmo who sympathetically referred to the whole Pachycondyla genus with his invented word “Bactronica”.
- Fernandes, I.O., De Oliveira, M.L. & Delabie, J.H.C. 2014. Description of two new species in the Neotropical Pachycondyla foetida complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) and taxonomic notes on the genus. Myrmecological News 19, 133-163.
- Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa. 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1)