| Neoponera billemma|
(Fernandes, De Oliveira & Delabie, 2014)
Nothing is known about the biology of Neoponera billemma.
Fernandes et al. (2014) - Strong transverse striae on the clypeus; anterior face of petiole lightly striate below and concave.
Strong transverse striae on clypeus; anterior face of petiole lightly striate below.
Although the number of examined species was small, morphological differences were found to separate this species of Neoponera curvinodis, which has longitudinal striae on clypeus and no striae on anterior face of petiole, while N. billemma has transversal striae on clypeus and anterior face of petiole striate. Neoponera insignis of Costa Rica also is similar to N. billemma but it has the anterior face of the petiole nearly vertical, while in N. billemma it is strongly concave, a character well marked in the queen and worker. The striation found on the clypeus is stronger and larger in N. billemma while in N. insignis the striae are poorly developed. The striation on the anterior face of petiole is absent in N. insignis. In workers, the head length does not exceed HL 2.38 mm, nor does the head width exceed HW 2.24 mm in N. insignis, while in N. billemma HL exceeds 3.15 mm and HW exceeds 2.84 mm. The scape index (SI) of the N. insignis workers does not exceed 97.22 mm, while in workers of N. billemma it exceeds 103.52 mm.
Keys including this Species
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
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Males have yet to be collected for this species.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- billemma. Pachycondyla billemma Fernandes, De Oliveira & Delabie, 2014: 140, figs. 15-29 (w.q.) BRAZIL. Combination in Neoponera: Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 151.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
(holotype in parentheses), paratypes = 1: SL: 2.94 (2.96); HW: 2.84 (2.85); HL: 3.16 (3.15); PW: 1.93 (1.92); WL: 5.05 (5.03); NLd: 0.91 (0.90); NWd: 1.27 (1.26); NLl: 1.45 (1.47); NHl: 1.31 (1.30); NIl: 110.68 (113.07); SI: 103.52 (103.86).
Head: antennal scape relatively long, extending about two funicular segments past the lateral border of the head and covered by golden pubescence; mandibles with approximately 15 teeth on masticatory border, posterior border of head slightly concave; dorsum of head moderately convex in lateral view; malar carina well developed, reaching eye; clypeus with strong transverse striae; anterior edge of clypeus convex, smooth and rounded with short and long golden hairs.
Mesosoma: pronotal carina sharp and well developed, extending over side of pronotum; mesonotum broadly ovate, 1/3 the width of the pronotum; notopropodeal groove deep; well-marked metanotal-propodeal groove; propodeal carina well developed.
Petiole: anterior face clearly concave, slightly striate below; posterior lateral carina of petiole sharp and developed, extending to apex in lateral view; sternopetiolar process consisting of anterior bilobed keel separated by carina.
Gaster: sternopostpetiolar process bilobed, without carina; tergites covered with golden pubescence and long golden hairs; hypopygidium and pygidium punctate and with long golden hairs.
Sculpture, color and pilosity: integument of head black and strongly punctate, punctures somewhat aligned in rows; mandibles with striae sparse and little punctate, margins near teeth smooth and shiny with short golden hairs; golden pubescence covering antennal scape and funicular segments; appressed golden pubescence mixed with silver, short and long golden hairs distributed over entire surface of the head; integument of mesosoma black with sparse punctations; surfaces not hidden by appressed pubescence, shiny; erect golden hairs abundant on dorsal region of mesosoma; legs black, covered with mixed silver and golden pubescence; anterior basitarsus and tarsus with dense golden pubescence on ventral surface; median and posterior tarsus brown, with row of golden setae on ventral surface; arolium brown; integument of petiole black and finely punctate; anterior face clearly striate, with surfaces not hidden by appressed pubescence, shining and punctate; surface of petiole covered with golden and silver pubescence, with long and short golden hairs; integument of gaster black and punctate, surfaces covered with appressed golden pubescence and erect golden hairs present on dorsal surface; hairs on legs either erect or suberect.
Similar to the worker, with the following differences:
Measurements of paratypes (n = 2): SL: 2.92-2.96; HW: 2.89-2.90; HL: 3.12-3.15; PW: 2.40-2.42; WL: 5.40-5.48; NLd: 1.18-1.20; NWd: 1.59-1.61; NLl: 1.56-1.57; NHl: 1.33-1.35; NIl: 116.29-117.29; SI: 101.03-102.06.
Head: anterodorsal ocelli well developed.
Mesosoma: arolium white; pronotal carina poorly developed; scutum large and thickened; scutellum and metanotum reduced; propodeal carina well developed, posterior region concave between carinae in dorsal view.
Petiole: anterior face strongly concave, slightly striate below; carina sharp and well developed, extending to the apex in lateral view.
Gaster: hypopygidium and pygidium strongly punctate.
Sculpture, pilosity and color similar to the worker.
Holotype (worker, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo). Brazil: Pará, Benevides, Morelândia, 16.VI.1988, leg. Bittencourt. Paratypes. Brazil: Goiás, 1980, leg. K. Redford, 1 worker (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia). – Goiás, 1980, leg. K. Redford, 1 ♀ (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna). São Paulo, Rio Claro, 22.VIII.2000, leg. D. Fresneau, 1 ♀ (Laboratório de Mirmecologia CEPEC / CPDC).
The specific epithet honors our colleagues and friends Bill (William) and Emma Mackay, in acknowledgment of their contributions to knowledge of Neotropical Pachycondyla.
- Fernandes, I.O., De Oliveira, M.L. & Delabie, J.H.C. 2014. Description of two new species in the Neotropical Pachycondyla foetida complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) and taxonomic notes on the genus. Myrmecological News 19, 133-163.
- Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa. 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1)