Neoponera striatinodis

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Neoponera striatinodis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Neoponera
Species: N. striatinodis
Binomial name
Neoponera striatinodis
Emery, 1890

Pachycondyla striatinodis casent0217569 p 1 high.jpg

Pachycondyla striatinodis casent0217569 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

From Mackay and Mackay (2010): These ants nest in the ant plant Cecropia hispidissima [Cecropiaceae]. Sexuals were collected in September (Panamá) and May (Colombia). Neoponera striatinodis is mimicked by the salticid spider Myrmarachne parallela (Reiskind, 1977) [Salticidae].

Identification

From Mackay and Mackay (2010): The striae or rugae covering all surfaces of the petiole would allow easy recognition of the worker and female of N. striatinodis. Neoponera foetida is the only other species with striae on all surfaces of the petiole. Neoponera foetida can be easily separated by its larger size (total length > 10 mm), dark legs (reddish brown), depressed metanotal suture and the medial margin of the clypeus is broadly rounded. The extremely well developed carina on the pronotal shoulder would separate N. striatinodis from most other similar species. Finally the contrast between the black background color and the yellowish or reddish brown legs would allow further separation of N. striatinodis from most others.

Neoponera striatinodis could be confused with the widely distributed Neoponera unidentata, which also has a sharp carina on the pronotum and yellowish or reddish brown legs. The shapes of the petioles of the two species are very similar. Neoponera unidentata can be easily separated as the posterior face of the petiole (as well as the sides) are mostly smooth and shining with scattered punctures and are without the horizontal striae found in N. striatinodis. Additionally the anterior medial process on the clypeus of N. unidentata is formed into a blunt angle, not a sharp angle as in N. striatinodis. Neoponera striatinodis could also be confused with Neoponera recava. It differs in that the entire petiole of N. recava is completely smooth and glossy and concave posteriorly, not convex as in. N. striatinodis.

Neoponera striatinodis could be confused with Neoponera holcotyle, which also has striae on the sides of the petiole. Neoponera striatinodis can be separated by the shape of the petiole, that of N. holcotyle has the anterior and posterior faces nearly parallel with a dorsal face. The striae that are present on the posterior face of N. striatinodis are lacking in N. holcotyle.

The description of Neoponera striatinodis var. rugosinodis matches the worker of N. striatinodis quite well and is considered a provisional synonym. Andre (1902) suggests it is closely related, but feels it differs based on the sculpturing of the petiole. He saw no actual specimens of N. striatinodis.

Distribution

GUATEMALA, COSTA RICA, PANAMA, COLOMBIA, PERU, GUYANA, BRASIL, BOLIVIA (Mackay and Mackay 2010)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica (type locality), Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Peru.

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Neoponera striatinodis for further details

Biology

Castes

Worker

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • striatinodis. Pachycondyla striatinodis Emery, 1890a: 75 (w.) COSTA RICA. [Also described as new by Emery, 1894k: 48.] Combination in Neoponera: Emery, 1901a: 47; in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 310; in Neoponera: Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014: 152. Senior synonym of bakeri: Kempf, 1960e: 391. Senior synonym of rugosinodis: Mackay & Mackay, 2010: 533.
  • rugosinodis. Neoponera rugosinodis André, 1902: 15 (w.) PERU. Combination in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 309. Subspecies of striatinodis: Emery, 1911d: 72. Junior synonym of striatinodis: Mackay & Mackay, 2010: 533.
  • bakeri. Neoponera (Neoponera) bakeri Mann, 1916: 411, pl. 1, fig. 9 (w.q.) BRAZIL. Junior synonym of striatinodis: Kempf, 1960e: 391.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

From Mackay and Mackay (2010): Workers of this species are moderately sized (total length 9 mm) black ants with yellowish brown appendages. The anterior medial border of the clypeus forms a sharp angle, but the clypeus is without a carina. The eye is moderate sized (maximum diameter 0.46 mm) and is located about one diameter from the anterior border of the head (side view). The malar carina is well developed and sharp anterior to the eye. The scapes extend about ⅓ length past the posterior lateral corners of the head. The carina at the pronotal shoulder is very well developed, sharp and overhangs the side of the pronotum. The promesonotal suture is well developed; the metanotal suture is barely indicated, especially on the dorsum. The propodeum is rounded between the two faces and the spiracle is slit-shaped. The petiole is thick when viewed in profile with a vertical anterior face and a convex and rounded posterior face, which meets the vertical face at a blunt angle. The anterior face of the postpetiole is slightly concave and meets the dorsal face at a rounded angle. The metasternal process consists of two sharp pointed lobes that curve inward.

Erect hairs are abundant on most surfaces, including the sides of the head, dorsal and ventral surfaces of the head, shaft of the scape, dorsum of the mesosoma, legs, dorsum of the petiole and all surfaces of the gaster. Appressed golden pubescence is abundant on most surfaces and may even be matted on the dorsum of the mesosoma and the dorsum of the gaster.

The mandibles are finely striate and moderately shining, the dorsum of the head is covered with striae with punctures between the striae, the dorsum of the mesosoma is punctate or granulose, the region below the pronotal carina is smooth and shiny, the remainder of the side of the pronotum is weakly punctate and moderately shining. Much of the mesopleuron is shining, except for the uppermost section (anepisternum), which is transversely striate. The side of the propodeum is rugose, the dorsum and posterior faces are shining. The sculpture of the petiole is characteristic of this species with horizontal rugae on the sides, which extend and form horizontal striae across the anterior face. The posterior face has parallel horizontal striae. The gaster is finely punctate and partially shining. The anterior coxa, femur and tibia are shining, the other coxae are dull, but the other femora and tibiae are moderately shining.

Queen

From Mackay and Mackay (2010): The female is a moderately large (11 mm) black specimen with reddish brown mandibles and antennae and yellowish brown legs. The mandible has approximately 13 teeth; the medial part of the clypeus forms a flat lobe with longitudinal striae, which overhangs the remainder of the clypeus. The malar carina is well developed and nearly reaches the eye. The posterior border of the head is broadly concave. The scapes are relatively short and barely extend past the posterior lateral corners of the head. The eye is large (maximum diameter 0.5 mm) and located about one maximum diameter from the anterior margin of the head. The carina on the pronotal shoulder is well developed, sharp and greatly overhangs the side of the pronotum. The metanotum is well developed; both sutures (promesonotal and metanotal) interrupt the sculpture on the dorsum of the mesosoma. The petiole is similar to that of the worker, with a vertical anterior face, which meets the broadly rounded posterior face at the anterior edge. The stridulatory file is well developed on the second pretergite, the arolia are poorly developed.

Erect hairs are abundant on all surfaces, including the dorsum and the ventral surfaces of the head, sides of the head, posterior margin, scapes, the dorsum of the mesosoma, the anterior and posterior faces of the petiole and all surfaces of the gaster, most hairs on the legs are erect or at least suberect. Appressed golden pubescence is abundant on nearly all surfaces.

The head and dorsum of the mesosoma are predominantly punctate, the side of the pronotum and mesopleuron are finely punctate and moderately shiny, the side of the propodeum is covered with rugulae and the posterior face of the propodeum is nearly smooth and glossy, the petiole has horizontal striae on the anterior face, sides and posterior face. The gaster is finely punctate and glossy.

Male

Males are not known for this species.

Type Material

Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jiménez; Perú: Huallaga, Río Mixiollo; Brasil, Porto Velho and Rio Madeira at Porto Velho. Two syntype workers seen, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1 syntype worker seen, American Museum of Natural History, 2 cotype workers seen, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History (Mackay and Mackay 2010)

Etymology

The name of this species is based on the Latin word stria, meaning channel or furrow and nodus, meaning swelling, referring to the striae on the side of the petiole. (Mackay and Mackay 2010)

References

  • André, E. 1902. Description de deux nouvelles fourmis du Pérou (Hymen.). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1902: 14-17 PDF
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1995a. [Untitled. Taxonomic changes in Pachycondyla attributed to Brown.] Pp. 302-311 in: Bolton, B. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 310, Combination in Pachycondyla: new combination)
  • Emery, C. 1890a [1889]. Alcune considerazioni sulla fauna mirmecologica dell'Africa. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 21: 69-75 (page 75, worker described)
  • Emery, C. 1894l. Estudios sobre las hormigas de Costa Rica. An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica 1888- 1889: 45-64 (page 48, also described as new)
  • Emery, C. 1901b. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 45: 32-54 (page 47, Combination in Neoponera)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1960e. Insecta Amapaensia. - Hymenoptera: Formicidae (segunda contribuiça~o). Stud. Entomol. (n.s.) 3: 385-400 (page 391, senior synonym of bakeri)
  • Mackay, W. P., and E. E. Mackay 2010. The Systematics and Biology of the New World Ants of the Genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Edwin Mellon Press, Lewiston. Information from this publication is used with permission from the authors.
  • Reiskind, J. 1977. Ant-mimicry in Panamian clubionid and salticid spiders (Araneae: Clubionidae and Salticidae). Biotropica 9:1-8.
  • Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa. 3817, 1–242 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1)