Nesomyrmex

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Nesomyrmex
Temporal range: 20.43–0 Ma
Early Miocene – Recent
Nesomyrmex angulatus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Nesomyrmex
Wheeler, W.M., 1910
Type species
Nesomyrmex clavipilis
Diversity
82 species
2 fossil species
(Species Checklist)

MCZ-ENT00519823 Nesomyrmex angulatus hal.jpg

Nesomyrmex angulatus

MCZ-ENT00519823 Nesomyrmex angulatus had.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships

Rostromyrmex






Cardiocondyla



Ocymyrmex






Nesomyrmex



Xenomyrmex





Terataner




Atopomyrmex



Cataulacus










Carebara



Diplomorium






Melissotarsus



Rhopalomastix






Calyptomyrmex



Tetramorium





Cyphoidris



Dicroaspis










Aretidris



Vollenhovia





Dacetinops



Indomyrma








Crematogaster



Meranoplus






Lophomyrmex




Adlerzia



Recurvidris






Stereomyrmex




Trichomyrmex





Eutetramorium




Royidris




Malagidris



Vitsika








Huberia



Podomyrma





Liomyrmex



Metapone













Kartidris



Mayriella





Tetheamyrma




Dacatria



Proatta









Dilobocondyla



Secostruma






Acanthomyrmex



Myrmecina





Perissomyrmex



Pristomyrmex









some Lordomyrma



Propodilobus





Lasiomyrma




[some Lordomyrma




Ancyridris



some Lordomyrma









Paratopula




Poecilomyrma




Romblonella



Rotastruma








Gauromyrmex



Vombisidris





Temnothorax




Harpagoxenus



Formicoxenus



Leptothorax













Based on Ward et al. (2014) and Blaimer et al. (2018).

Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - Nesomyrmex, formerly a subgenus of the large and almost cosmopolitan Leptothorax, was raised to genus in 2003 (Bolton, 2003) and 52 species can be encountered in the tropics and subtropics of the Neotropical, Malagasy and Afrotropical regions (Bolton, 2012). The biology of the genus is not well studied. Most species prefer arid habitats while a few live in rainforests. Generally, Nesomyrmex ants can nest either in the soil, as most South African species do, or in trees (Mbanyana & Roberson, 2008), often in pre-existing cavities.

Identification

Superficially, Nesomyrmex workers with a rounded propodeum that lacks spines can be confused with Monomorium, but can be distinguished by lacking the isolated median setae on the anterior clypeal margin. Those species of Nesomyrmex that have the propodeum armed or angulate, superficially resemble Tetramorium species, and can be separated from them mainly by the lateral portions of clypeus, which are not raised into a narrow ridge or shield-wall in front of the antennal insertions, unlike in Tetramorium. Nesomyrmex can also be confused with Cardiocondyla because the median portion of the clypeus extends over the mandibles in both genera. They are most easily distinguished by the shape of the postpetiole in dorsal view, which in Cardiocondyla is considerably broader than the petiolar node. In addition, the eyes of Cardiocondyla are in front of the midlength of the sides whereas in Nesomyrmex they are at the midlength. (Mbanyana and Robertson 2008)

Nesomyrmex species groups of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Nesomyrmex Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Nesomyrmex Species Richness.png

Biology

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 11-12 • Antennal club 3 • Palp formula 5,3 • Total dental count 3-5 • Spur formula 2 simple, 2 simple; 0, 0 • Sting present

Male Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 41609 • Antennal club 0 • Palp formula 5,3 • Total dental count 5 • Spur formula 0, 0

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • NESOMYRMEX [Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini]
    • Nesomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1910a: 259. Type-species: Nesomyrmex clavipilis, by monotypy.
    • Nesomyrmex subgenus of Leptothorax: Emery, 1915g: 24; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 679; Smith, M.R. 1950: 30; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 816; Kempf, 1959c: 393; Brown, 1971a: 4; Kempf, 1972a: 133; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1391.
    • Nesomyrmex as genus: Francoeur & Loiselle, 1988b: 43 (possibly valid); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 14 [junior synonyms of Nesomyrmex left under Leptothorax]; Jaffe, 1993: 11.
    • Nesomyrmex junior synonym of Goniothorax: Emery, 1924d: 249; Donisthorpe, 1943f: 674. [Incorrect procedure as Goniothorax is a junior homonym for which Nesomyrmex is the first available replacement name, see Smith, M.R. 1950: 30.]
    • Nesomyrmex senior synonym of Caulomyrma: Emery, 1915g: 24; Forel, 1915c: 364.
    • Nesomyrmex senior synonym of Limnomyrmex: Brown, 1971a: 4.
    • Nesomyrmex senior synonym of Meia: Bolton, 1994: 105.
    • Nesomyrmex junior synonym of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
    • Nesomyrmex revived from synonymy with status as genus and senior synonym of Caulomyrma, Ireneopone, Limnomyrmex, Meia, Tetramyrma: Bolton, 2003: 249, 272.
  • CAULOMYRMA [junior synonym of Nesomyrmex]
    • Caulomyrma Forel, 1914d: 233 [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax echinatinodis, by original designation.
    • Caulomyrma junior synonym of Nesomyrmex: [Forel, 1915c: 364 (provisional synonym)]; Emery, 1915g: 24.
    • [Caulomyrma and Nesomyrmex junior synonyms of Goniothorax: Emery, 1924d: 249 (incorrect procedure as Goniothorax is a junior homonym for which Nesomyrmex is the first available replacement name; see Smith, M.R. 1950: 30).]
  • GONIOTHORAX [junior homonym, see Nesomyrmex]
    • Goniothorax Emery, 1896g: 58 (diagnosis in key) [as subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax vicinus, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164. [Junior homonym of Goniothorax Milne-Edwards, 1879: 103 (Crustacea).]
    • Goniothorax Emery senior synonym of Caulomyrma, Nesomyrmex: Emery, 1924d: 249. Nesomyrmex is oldest junior synonym of Goniothorax Emery and hence first available replacement name: Smith, M.R. 1950: 30.
    • [Goniothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax: Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 139; Forel, 1917: 244; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 679; Emery, 1924d: 249; Creighton, 1950a: 259.]
  • IRENEOPONE [junior synonym of Nesomyrmex]
    • Ireneopone Donisthorpe, 1946d: 242. Type-species: Ireneopone gibber, by original designation.
    • Ireneopone junior synonym of Nesomyrmex: Bolton, 2003: 250, 272.
  • LIMNOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Nesomyrmex]
    • Limnomyrmex Arnold, 1948: 222. Type-species: Limnomyrmex stramineus, by original designation.
    • Limnomyrmex junior synonym of Nesomyrmex: Brown, 1971a: 4.
    • Limnomyrmex junior synonym of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
    • Limnomyrmex junior synonym of Nesomyrmex: Bolton, 2003: 250, 272.
  • MEIA [junior synonym of Nesomyrmex]
    • Meia Pagliano & Scaramozzino, 1990: 5. [Unnecessary replacement name for Goniothorax Emery, 1896g: 58; junior homonym of Goniothorax Milne-Edwards, 1879: 103 (Crustacea).]
    • [Nesomyrmex is the first available replacement name for Goniothorax Emery, therefore Meia is automatically a junior synonym of Nesomyrmex: Bolton, 1994: 105.]
  • TETRAMYRMA [junior synonym of Nesomyrmex]
    • Tetramyrma Forel, 1912m: 766 [as subgenus of Dilobocondyla]. Type-species: Dilobocondyla (Tetramyrma) braunsi, by monotypy.
    • Tetramyrma raised to genus: Forel, 1913a: 122.
    • Tetramyrma junior synonym of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
    • Tetramyrma junior synonym of Nesomyrmex: Bolton, 2003: 249, 272.

References

  • Bolton, B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmecine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissotarsus, Messor and Cataulacus (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology, 46: 307-370 (page 319, Nesomyrmex as junior synonym of Leptothorax)
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 105, Nesomyrmex as junior synonym of Leptothorax; Nesomyrmex senior synonym of Meia)
  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 39, Nesomyrmex as junior synonym of Leptothorax)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 249, 272, Nesomyrmex revived from synonymy with status as genus and senior synonym of Caulomyrma, Ireneopone, Limnomyrmex, Meia, Tetramyrma)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1971a. Characters and synonymies among the genera of ants. Part IV. Some genera of subfamily Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Breviora 365: 1-5 (page 4, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax; Nesomyrmex senior synonym of Limnomyrmex)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. (page 183, Nesomyrmex as junior synonym of Leptothorax [provisional])
  • Csösz, S. and Fisher, B.L. 2015. Diagnostic survey of Malagasy Nesomyrmex species-groups and revision of hafahafa group species via morphology based cluster delimitation protocol. ZooKeys. 526:19-59. PDF
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1943g. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [part]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(10): 617-688 (page 674, Nesomyrmex as junior synonym of Goniothorax [Goniothorax is a junior homonym and hence Nesomyrmex takes priority as first available replacment name.])
  • Emery, C. 1915e. Formiche raccolte nell'Eritrea dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agrar. R. Sc. Super. Agric. 10: 3-26 (page 24, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax; Nesomyrmex senior synonym of Caulomyrma)
  • Emery, C. 1924f [1922]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C: 207-397 (page 249, Nesomyrmex as junior synonym of Goniothorax)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 244, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. (page 14, Nesomyrmex as genus [junior synonyms of Nesomyrmex left behind under Leptothorax])
  • Jaffe, K. 1993. El mundo de las hormigas. Baruta, Venezuela: Equinoccio (Ediciones de la Universidad Simón Bolívar), 188 pp. (page 11, Nesomyrmex as genus)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1959d. A synopsis of the New World species belonging to the Nesomyrmex-group of the ant genus Leptothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. (n.s.) 2: 391-432 (page 393, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da regia~o Neotropical. Stud. Entomol. 15: 3-344 (page 133, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • MacKay, W. P. 2000. A review of the New World ants of the subgenus Myrafant, (genus Leptothorax) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 36: 265-444 (page 272, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax (in key))
  • Mbanyana, N. and Robertson, H.G. 2008. Review of the ant genus Nesomyrmex in southern Africa. African Natural History 4: 35-55 PDF
  • Milne-Edwards, A. 1879. Description de quelques crustacés nouveaux. Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris (7) 3: 103-110 (page 103, Goniothorax (Crustacea) senior homonym of Goniothorax Emery, 1896)
  • Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. (page 1391, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Smith, M. R. 1950a. On the status of Leptothorax Mayr and some of its subgenera. Psyche (Camb.) 57: 29-30 (page 30, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Smith, M. R. 1951c. Family Formicidae. Pp. 778-875 in: Muesebeck, C. F., Krombein, K. V., Townes, H. K. (eds.) Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue. U. S. Dep. Agric. Agric. Monogr. 2:1-1420. (page 816, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910d. Three new genera of myrmicine ants from tropical America. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 28: 259-265 (page 259, Nesomyrmex as genus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 679, Nesomyrmex as subgenus of Leptothorax)