Notes on F. Smith Ant Type-Material

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Notes on F. Smith Ant Type-Material Deposited in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History (OXUM) and Ponerines (sensu lato) from The Natural History Museum (BMNH)


Barry Bolton


The original aim of this project was to catalogue the type-material of ant species described by Frederick Smith, from specimens collected by Alfred R. Wallace in Indonesia and Malaysia, and deposited in OXUM and to a much lesser extent BMNH. Included in the project was the accurate determination of the dates of publication of Smith’s papers, which before had been much confused, and a review of Donisthorpe’s (1932c) earlier assessment of the Wallace OXUM types. On completion of that part, in about 1978, the project expanded to include species described by Smith that were deposited in BMNH. The results of that excursion are partial, but a few of his BMNH-deposited types, in particular ponerines (in the old broad sense of the term), and some myrmicines and others have been included. The main reason for the lack of completion of the review of BMNH type-material was that whilst employed at BMNH the types were always there and easily available to me, and the project quietly lost impetus. Compilation of the catalogue was primarily for my own information on the whereabouts and validity of Smith’s types; it was never assumed that this list would become a formal publication. It still is not, but the notes are presented here for those interested in ant taxonomy in general, and the ant species collected by A.R. Wallace in particular.

The species are listed in alphabetical order, by genus and species, under Smith’s original generic combinations, with links to their main page. Later changes in combinations, synonymies, etc., can be found in the New General Catalogue and on the main page for each taxon. For designations of lectotypes and neotypes from Smith’s material, see the revisions of appropriate genera as listed in SYNOPSIS.

Throughout, the abbreviation “Acc. Reg.” refers to entries in the BMNH series of handwritten Accessions Registers that deal with the years in question.

Amblyopone

Amblyopone castaneus F. Smith, 1860b: 105

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Amblyopone cephalotes F. Smith, 1876c: 490

Holotype worker (presumed) in BMNH, mounted on card with a pupa. Labelled “Amblyopone cephalotes Smith. N. Zeal.” The specimen matches the original description but there is no datum label that proves it to be the true holotype. The original description states that the holotype was “collected by Mr Lawson at Auckland.”


Amblyopone ferruginea F. Smith, 1858b: 110

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Melbourne,” and “56/120.” Acc. Reg.: “1856 no. 120 (Sept 26). Melbourne. Merry Merry Creek. Bought of Stevens.”

OXUM has a worker from Adelaide, not type-material.


Amblyopone obscura F. Smith, 1858b: 109

One syntype queen in BMNH (syntype worker could not be found). Labelled “Australia,” and “A. obscura Sm. Type.”

Anomma

Anomma erratica F. Smith, 1865: 71

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “New Guinea.” Locality in error as this is definitely an Afrotropical species. Correct locality may be Guinea.

Atta

Atta cingulata F. Snith, 1857a: 77

NO TYPE-MATERIAL FOUND. Also not found by Donisthorpe (1932c). Type-material should be at least one worker major and one worker minor, with Borneo (Sarawak) as the type-locality.


Atta penetrans F. Smith, 1857a: 77

Holotype alate queen (right wings missing) in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.”

Carebara

Carebara dux F. Smith, 1858b: 179

One queen, may be holotype or a syntype but not proved, in OXUM.

Cataulacus

Cataulacus flagitiosus F. Smith, 1862a: 49

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 5.”


Cataulacus hispidulus F. Smith, 1865: 76

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Sum.”


Cataulacus hispidus F. Smith, 1876d: 611

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Sing.”


Cataulacus horridus F. Smith, 1857a: 81

Two worker syntypes in OXUM, two worker syntypes in BMNH. All labelled “SAR.” except for one in OXUM that is “Mal. 23.” Both localities are given by Smith in the original description.


Cataulacus insularis F. Smith, 1857a: 80

Holotype male in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.”


Cataulacus praetextus F. Smith, 1867: 528

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Borneo.”


Cataulacus reticulatus F. Smith, 1857a: 81

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 5.”


Cataulacus setosus F. Smith, 1860b: 114

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 31.”

Cephaloxys

Cephaloxys capitata F. Smith, 1865: 77

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “N” (= New Guinea).

Cerapachys

Cerapachys antennatus F. Smith, 1857a: 74

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled with a pink, rectangular “TYPE” label, a Donisthorpe type-label and a folded blue rectangular label “Cerapachys antennatus Smith. Borneo.”

A second specimen in OXUM, also labelled “Cerapachys antennatus Smith. Borneo,” is actually a worker of C. sulcinodis Emery, and has been det. as such.


Cerapachys oculatus F. Smith, 1857a: 74

Holotype male in OXUM. Labelled “SAR” (= Sarawak) (locality data not given in original description). With a Donisthorpe type-label and a det. label by him “Rhopalothrix?”

Crematogaster

Crematogaster ampullaris F. Smith, 1861b: 47

TYPE-MATERIAL NOT FOUND.

Donisthorpe (1932c) records two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” This material could not be detected in the current survey. Also, no specimens in BMNH.


Crematogaster anthracinus F. Smith, 1857a: 75

Three worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Sing. 31.”


Crematogaster bicolor F. Smith, 1860b: 109

Four worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “under bark, Bac.”


Crematogaster brunneus F. Smith, 1857a: 75

Two worker syntypes in OXUM, two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Sar.”


Crematogaster cephalotes F. Smith, 1857a: 75

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 25.” The two specimens on the card appear to be different species.


Crematogaster difformis F. Smith, 1857a: 76

Six worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Sing. 25” and “Sar. 33.” Both localities are recorded by Smith.


Crematogaster elegans F. Smith, 1859a: 149

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.” The card has two specimens on it. The left hand specimen is the holotype of elegans, the right hand specimen is a different species and was made the holotype of C. mimicans Donisthorpe, 1932.


Crematogaster inflatus F. Smith, 1857a: 76

Five worker syntypes in OXUM, 3 worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Sar.” “Sar. 9.” and “Sing. 27.” Sarawak and Singapore are both recorded by Smith.


Crematogaster insularis F. Smith, 1859a: 149

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.”


Crematogaster iridipennis F. Smith, 1865: 74

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “N.” (= New Guinea).


Crematogaster irritabilis F. Smith, 1860b: 109

Four worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Dor.”


Crematogaster laboriosus F. Smith, 1860b: 109

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 23.”


Crematogaster laevissimus F. Smith, 1860a: 74

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “MAK.”


Crematogaster obscura F. Smith, 1857a: 76

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.” (= Sarawak).


Crematogaster obscurus F. Smith, 1860b: 109

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.).


Crematogaster politus F. Smith, 1865: 74

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “S.” Smith gives the type-locality as “New Guinea” in the text, but the label on the specimen says “S,” the usual abbreviation for Salwatty I. The specimen matches the original description, so I suspect mislabelling or a later switch of labels.


Crematogaster tarsata F. Smith, 1865: 74

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “M.” (= Morotai I.).

Cryptocerus

Cryptocerus placidus F. Smith, 1860c: 76

Holotype male in OXUM. Labelled “S. Paulo Brazil.”

Holotypes of the following five species, in OXUM, have been confirmed by W.W. Kempf.

Cryptocerus angulosus F. Smith, 1867: 525

Cryptocerus conspersus F. Smith, 1867: 523

Cryptocerus exiguus F. Smith, 1867: 524

Cryptocerus laminatus F. Smith, 1860c: 76

Cryptocerus scutulatus F. Smith, 1867: 524


Data on all Smith’s Cryptocerus types deposited in BMNH and OXUM are reviewed in De Andrade, M.L. & Baroni Urbani, C. 1999. Diversity and adaptation in the ant genus Cephalotes, past and present. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 271: 1-889.

Their records of type-material are as follows.

Cryptocerus aethiops F. Smith, 1853: 216. Holotype worker, BMNH.

Cryptocerus angulatus F. Smith, 1858b: 189. Syntype workers, BMNH and OXUM.

Cryptocerus angulosus F. Smith, 1867: 525. Holotype worker, OXUM.

Cryptocerus araneolus F. Smith, 1853: 223. Holotype worker, BMNH.

Cryptocerus argentatus F. Smith, 1853: 218. Type-material lost, not in BMNH or OXUM.

Cryptocerus basalis F. Smith, 1876d: 608. Holotype queen, BMNH.

Cryptocerus bimaculatus F. Smith, 1860c: 77. Holotype queen, BMNH.

Cryptocerus cognatus F. Smith, 1862d: 411. Holotype queen, BMNH.

Cryptocerus conspersus F. Smith, 1867: 523. Holotype worker, OXUM.

Cryptocerus cordatus F. Smith, 1853: 220. Type-material lost, not in BMNH or OXUM.

Cryptocerus discocephalus F. Smith, 1853: 222. Type-material lost, not in BMNH or OXUM.

Cryptocerus dorbignyanus F. Smith, 1853: 218. Type-material lost, not in BMNH or OXUM.

Cryptocerus dubitatus F. Smith, 1853: 216. Type-material lost, not in BMNH or OXUM.

Cryptocerus elegans F. Smith, 1853: 222. Syntype workers in BMNH and OXUM.

Cryptocerus exiguus F. Smith, 1867: 524. Holotype worker, OXUM.

Cryptocerus femoralis F. Smith, 1853: 219. Type-material lost, not in BMNH or OXUM.

Cryptocerus fenestralis F. Smith, 1876d: 607. Holotype queen, BMNH.

Cryptocerus fervidus F. Smith, 1876d: 605. Holotype queen, BMNH.

Cryptocerus gibbosus F. Smith, 1876d: 605. Holotype worker, BMNH.

Cryptocerus grandinosus F. Smith, 1860c: 76. Holotype worker, BMNH.

Cryptocerus jucundus F. Smith, 1876d: 606. Holotype worker, BMNH (head missing).

Cryptocerus laminatus F. Smith, 1860c: 76. Holotype worker, OXUM.

Cryptocerus maculatus F. Smith, 1876d: 607. Holotype queen, BMNH.

Cryptocerus obtusus F. Smith, 1858b: 191. Syntype worker, BMNH.

Cryptocerus pallidicephalus F. Smith, 1876d: 606. Holotype queen, BMNH.

Cryptocerus placidus F. Smith, 1860c: 76. Holotype male, OXUM.

Cryptocerus scutulatus F. Smith, 1867: 524. Holotype worker, OXUM.

Cryptocerus serraticeps F. Smith, 1858b: 188. Holotype queen, BMNH.

Cryptocerus unimaculatus F. Smith, 1853: 221. Holotype worker, BMNH.

Cryptocerus varians F. Smith, 1876d: 606. Syntype workers, BMNH.

Omitted from the list is Cryptocerus pubescens F. Smith, 1853: 223, which is now a member of the genus Meranoplus.

Drepanognathus

Drepanognathus cruentatus F. Smith, 1858b: 82

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Hong Kong. 48/60.” Acc. Reg.: “1848 no. 60 Hong Kong and Philippine Islds. Presented by J.C. Bowring, esq.”


Drepanognathus venator F. Smith, 1858b: 82

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Madras. 50/103.” Acc. Reg.: “1850 no. 103. Madras (French rocks). Presented by Mrs Capt. Hamilton.”

Echinopla

Echinopla deceptor F. Smith, 1863: 23

Holotype dealate queen in OXUM. Labelled “Bou.” (= Buru I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Echinopla dubitata F. Smith, 1862a: 50

One worker syntype in OXUM, one worker syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Tond.” and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Echinopla melanarctos F. Smith, 1857a: 79

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SINC” and with a Donisthorpe type-label. A second specimen is present in OXUM, labelled “22 SING.”


Echinopla nitida F. Smith, 1863: 23

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Cer. E” and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Echinopla pallipes F. Smith, 1857a: 80

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 13” and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Echinopla praetexta F. Smith, 1860b: 113

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Batchian” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.

In the original description Smith implies that the type-locality of this species is unknown, writing, “Hab. - ?” The specimen recognised as holotype by Donisthorpe fits the original description perfectly, so it is probably best to regard it as the true type and suppose that the locality label was added later, a supposition supported by the fact that the name is fully written, “Batchian,” rather than abbrevated to “Bac.”, as was Smith’s usual procedure.


Echinopla striata F. Smith, 1857a: 80

One syntype worker in OXUM. Labelled “21 MAL.” and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Second syntype not found (Smith states, “I have seen only two individuals.”), but OXUM also has Smith coll. specimens from “Tond.”, “Sum.”, “Mak.” and “Cer.” (Tondano and Makassar in Sulawesi, Sumatra and Seram I.).

Ectatomma

Ectatomma aciculata F. Smith, 1858b: 104

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Hunter River,” (Australia) and “51/36.” Acc. Reg.: “1851 no. 36 (April 16th). Hunter River. Purchased from Mr Ker. Bill 1851.A.26.”


Ectatomma brunnea F. Smith, 1858b: 103

Syntype worker in BMNH. “Santarem” (Brazil). The syntype queen can not be positively identified. In BMNH there is another worker and another queen, also from the type-locality of Santarem, but the worker has passed through the Farren White collection.


Ectatomma concinna F. Smith, 1858b: 103

Holotype queen in BMNH. Labelled “Braz. Santarem” on one side, and “52/96,” on the other. Acc. Reg.: “1852 no. 96 (Sept. 6) Purchased of Stevens. Collected by Mr Bates.”


Ectatomma punctata F. Smith, 1858b: 104

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “52/110.” Acc. Reg.: “1852 no. 110 (9 Oct.) Australia (Port Lincoln). Zool. Society.”


Ectatomma rugosa F. Smith, 1859a: 143

One worker syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Aru 24” (= Aru I., New Guinea). The male syntype mentioned by Smith was not found.

A worker in OXUM, glued to a card rectangle, has “Ponera rugosa Smith. Aru,” written on the underside of the card. This specimen also has a Donisthorpe type-label, “worker Ectatomma rugosa Smith, TYPE.” This specimen is not the type of rugosa, but is the holotype of Rhytidoponera wallacei Donisthorpe, as is indicated on a lower label.


Ectatomma scabrosa F. Smith, 1862b: 31

Three worker syntypes in BMNH. The syntypes are flat-mounted, each on a roughly hexagonal piece of card. Along the basal border, behind the pin, is “Panama,” and on the reverse of the card the number “13.”

Formica

Formica (Tapinoma) albipes F. Smith, 1861b: 38

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.”


Formica angulata F. Smith, 1859a: 139

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.”


Formica badia F. Smith, 1857a: 54

Three worker syntypes in OXUM. One labelled “Sing. 6,” two labelled “Sar. 32.” Smith records both localities in the original description. There is also a single worker from Sumatra, det. as badia by Smith.


Formica camelina F. Smith, 1857a: 57

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “SING 2.” Another specimen is present, from Sumatra.


Formica circumspecta F. Smith, 1861b: 37

One queen syntype and one worker minor syntype in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” The major worker mentioned by Smith could not be found.


Formica consanguinea F. Smith, 1861b: 36

Two worker minor syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.”


Formica cordata F. Smith, 1859a: 137

Seven worker syntypes (on three cards) in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.”


Formica coxalis F. Smith, 1859a: 136

Holotype worker (major) in OXUM. Labelled “Aru 45.” There is also a minor worker in OXUM, labelled “Aro 45” and with a blue Smith det. label. In the original description Smith mentions only the major worker. The minor is therefore excluded from the type-series. Note also the different spellings, Aru versus Aro.


Formica cruda F. Smith, 1860b: 95

Five worker syntypes (on one card) in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 58.”


Formica desecta F. Smith, 1860b: 97

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Dor. 21.”


Formica diligens F. Smith, 1857a: 55

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “MALCA” (= Malacca, West Malaysia). The specimen in badly damaged and mounted on a very corroded pin; wings and gaster are missing.


Formica dorycus F. Smith, 1860b: 96

Holotype worker minor in OXUM. Labelled “Dor. 26.”


Formica exasperata F. Smith, 1857a: 56

One worker syntype in OXUM. Labelled “SAR 2.” Although only a single specimen is present I have labelled it as a syntype, because Smith implies in the original description that more than one was present at that time.


Formica familiaris F. Smith, 1860a: 68

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi).


Formica fervens F. Smith, 1857a: 55

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SAR 34.” A second specimen, also from “SAR,” is present, labelled as fervens.


Formica festina F. Smith, 1857a: 53

Two queen syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.”


Formica flavitarsus F. Smith, 1859a: 136

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Aru 14” and “Aru 45.” Donisthorpe (1932c: 452) records only one worker, but both specimens appear to come from the same series, and appear to have originally been mounted on a single card, that was later cut in half. Donisthorpe’s referral of this species to Camponotus is in error.


Formica fragilis F. Smith, 1859a: 136

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.”


Formica (Tapinoma) gibba F. Smith, 1861b: 38

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” Two more specimens are present, with the Smith label “Tond 3.”


Formica gracilipes F. Smith, 1857a: 55

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Sing. 30.” Also specimens det. as gracilipes from “Aru” and “N” (= New Guinea).


Formica incursor F. Smith, 1860b: 95

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 52.”


Formica irritans F. Smith, 1857a: 55 [described a second time on p. 58.]

Three worker syntypes in OXUM. One labelled “MAL 19.”, the other two “34 MALAC.” (both localities = West Malaysia). In addition there is a single worker labelled “SAR. 1” which is probably the one mentioned from “Borneo (Sarawak) in the original description. I have placed this specimen with the syntypes.

Smith described this species twice in the same publication (pp. 55 and 58), based on the same specimens.


Formica irritabilis F. Smith, 1857a: 56

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SAR 7.”


Formica lactaria F. Smith, 1860b: 95

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 17.”


Formica laevissima F. Smith, 1859a: 138

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru 28.” Also present in OXUM are two workers from “Wag.” and one each from “Gil. S” and “Bac.”


Formica leucophaea F. Smith, 1861b: 37

Two worker minor syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.”


Formica longiceps F. Smith, 1863: 13

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Wag.”


Formica mistura F. Smith, 1857a: 53

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.”


Formica mutilata F. Smith, 1859a: 137

Holotype worker major in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.”


Formica nitida F. Smith, 1859a: 138

Holotype worker major in OXUM. There is no locality label on the specimen (may have been lost) but Smith gives “Aru” in the original description. The specimen has both Smith and Donisthorpe det. labels.


Formica oculata F. Smith, 1859a: 137

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru” and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Formica pavida F. Smith, 1860b: 96

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.”


Formica pilosa F. Smith, 1857a: 54

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Sar 26.” OXUM also has specimens labelled “Sum.” and “Sar 24.”


Formica quadriceps F. Smith, 1859a: 137

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.”


Formica (Myrmecopsis) respiciens F. Smith, 1865: 68

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “New Guinea” and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Formica ruficeps F. Smith, 1857a: 54

Two worker syntypes (one major, one minor) in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 19”


Formica rufifrons F. Smith, 1860b: 95

One worker syntype and one queen syntype in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.”


Formica scrutator F. Smith, 1859a: 138

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.”


Formica sedula F. Smith, 1857a: 56

Holotype worker major in OXUM. Labelled “SAR 7.”


Formica subtilis F. Smith, 1860b: 94

MIXED TYPE-SERIES, AWAITING RESOLUTION.

Smith described subtilis as major and minor workers of a single species. Of the OXUM material, one major and one minor represent a species of what is now Camponotus, but the remaining two “minors” are in fact workers of Formica gracillipes F. Smith (now in Anoplolepis). Donisthorpe (1932c: 459) thought that Smith’s major and minor referred to the two specimens of Camponotus, but in the original description Smith says, “antennae very slender, and longer than the body; the legs very long, the posterior pair nearly twice the length of the body.” This can only apply to the gracilipes specimens. All the specimens are labelled as “F. subtilis” by Smith. Those belonging in Camponotus are labelled “Bac. 34”, while the specimens that are properly gracilipes are “Bac. 12.” First revisor will have to resolve this. For the present the gracilipes specimens have been labeled, “F. subtilis F. Smith, part of mixed type-series; for other part see under Camponotus.”


Formica tenuipes F. Smith, 1857a: 57

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.”


Formica tropica F. Smith, 1861b: 37

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Gil.” (Gilolo I., = Halmahera).


Formica virulens F. Smith, 1861b: 38

Holotype worker major in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.”


Formica vitrea F. Smith, 1860b: 94

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 13.”

Heptacondylus

Heptacondylus arachnoides F. Smith, 1857a: 72

One worker syntype and one queen syntype in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 11.”


Heptacondylus carinatus F. Smith, 1857a: 73

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.” Head of holotype is missing.


Heptacondylus rugosus F. Smith, 1860b: 110

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.11.”


Heptacondylus subcarinatus F. Smith, 1857a: 73

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 27.”

Leptogenys

Leptogenys insularis F. Smith, 1879: 675

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “52” upon the stage card, and “Oahu. 79/40.” Acc. Reg.: “1879 no. 40. 1 Leptogenys insularis Sm. Sandwich Is (Oahu). Presented by Rev. T. Blackburn, Honolulu.” A blue syntype label is on the specimen (as opposed to a red holotype label) as the type-series appeared originally to contain several workers. Smith says, “Not rare,......workers only taken.” On the other hand, the specimen may well be unique as the accessions register specifically states “1.”

Meranoplus

Meranoplus castaneus F. Smith, 1857a: 81

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Sar. 6.”


Meranoplus cordatus F. Smith, 1857a: 82

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Sar. 3.”


Meranoplus spinosus F. Smith, 1859a: 150

TYPE-MATERIAL NOT FOUND

Type-material should be a holotype worker in OXUM, from “Aru.” The specimen labelled as holotype of spinosus in OXUM is a queen of a Procryptocerus species, labelled “Aroo.” Donisthorpe (1932c: 456) chose to accept this queen as the holotype and listed: “Meranoplus spinosus Smith l.c. p. 150, Worker, Aru; Dalla Torre l.c. clxxiv. C, p. 228 (1922) = Procryptocerus spinosus Smith. 1 dealated queen, “Aroo.”

This is entirely unacceptable because:

  1. Smith’s original description is definitely of a worker.
  2. The original description is good enough to tell that the specimen is a Meranoplus.
  3. Procryptocerus is restricted to the Neotropics.

It must be concluded that either the label has been switched to the wrong specimen in the past, or that the original specimen was lost or destroyed and replaced with an incorrect substitute. Whichever, the genuine holotype of M. spinosus is lost.

Mesoxena

Mesoxena mistura F. Smith, 1860b: 107

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 8,” and “Bachian” and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Head of holotype is damaged: clypus, mouthparts, part of frontal carinae and right mandible are missing.

Myrmecia

Myrmecia rufinodis F. Smith, 1858b: 145

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Adelaide 53/8” and with a det. label “rufinodis type Sm.”


Myrmecia tarsata F. Smith, 1858b: 145

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “N.H. Hunter R. 44/105” and with a det. label “tarsata Type Smith.” Specimen is very large, with swollen gaster.


Myrmecia tasmaniensis F. Smith, 1858b: 147

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled only “tasmaniensis Sm. type.”


Myrmecia vindex F. Smith, 1858b: 144

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “W. Austral 42/19” and with “Mr Moor” on underside of label.

At some time in the past the head has become detached and is now glued to a label whose underside reads “vindex type Sm.”

Myrmecina

Myrmecina gratiosa F. Smith, 1858b: 133

One syntype queen in BMNH. Labelled “Adelaide, 56/43.” The worker syntype described by Smith can not be found.

Myrmica

Myrmica adelaidae F. Smith, 1858b: 128

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Adelaide, 54,70.”


Myrmica agilis F. Smith, 1857a: 71

Three worker minor syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “35 Malac.” (= Malacca, West Malaysia).


Myrmica aspersa F. Smith, 1865: 72

One worker syntype in OXUM, one worker syntype in BMNH. Both labelled “M” (= Morotai I.). OXUM syntype has a Donisthorpe type-label.


Myrmica carinata F. Smith, 1859a: 148

One worker syntype in OXUM, one worker syntype in BMNH. OXUM specimen labelled “Aru,” BMNH specimen without data.

The card on which the OXUM specimen is mounted has been cut in half at some time in the past and originally had a second worker. The apices of the legs of this worker are still visible on the card, to the left of the entire specimen; the BMNH specimen is this maimed worker.


Myrmica caeca F. Smith, 1860b: 108

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “59.58 Dory, New Guinea.”


Myrmica diligens F. Smith, 1865: 73

One worker syntype in OXUM, one worker syntype in BMNH. Both labelled “N” (= New Guinea).


Myrmica fuscipennis F. Smith, 1861b: 46

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi).


Myrmica gracilescens F. Smith, 1860a: 74

Holotype worker minor in OXUM. Labelled “Mak. 48.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi).


Myrmica incerta F. Smith, 1863: 21

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “M” (= Misool I.).


Myrmica insolens F. Smith, 1861b: 47

Holotype queen (not worker) in OXUM. Labelled “Men.” (= Menado, Sulawesi). The original description begins “Worker,” but this is a misprint as Smith mentions the presence of black ocelli.


Myrmica laevissima F. Smith, 1860b: 108

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 7.”


Myrmica longipes F. Smith, 1857a: 70

Three worker syntypes in OXUM. Card with two syntypes labelled “Sing. 28,” card with a single syntype labelled “Singapore, Wallace.”


Myrmica maligna F. Smith, 1865: 72

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “M.” (= Morotai I.).


Myrmica mellea F. Smith, 1859a: 148

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.”


Myrmica modesta F. Smith, 1860b: 108

Three worker syntypes (2 on one card, 1 on another) in OXUM. Labelled “Bac 19.”

Two other specimens, labelled “Gil. 13,” are also present.


Myrmica moesta F. Smith, 1863: 21

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Mat.” (= Martabello I.).


Myrmica oblonga F. Smith, 1860b: 107

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.). One specimen has the gaster missing.


Myrmica opaca F. Smith, 1861b: 47

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi).


Myrmica parallela F. Smith, 1859a: 147

Holotype worker in OXUM. Specimen without locality label, but with a label “simillima” in Smith’s writing. Type-locality “Aru” according to original description.


Myrmica pedestris F. Smith, 1861b: 46

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Tond. 8.”


Myrmica pellucida F. Smith, 1857a: 71

Four worker syntypes in OXUM. Without a locality label on the specimens, but with a Smith det. label. Locality given in original description is Singapore.


Myrmica pertinax F. Smith, 1861b: 46

Two worker syntypes in OXUM, one worker syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi). Each syntype on a separate stage card, each card with the letter “d” in bottom left hand corner.


Myrmica polita F. Smith, 1860b: 108

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.).


Myrmica poneroides F. Smith, 1860b: 107

Three queen syntypes in OXUM (2 on one card, 1 on another), one queen syntype in BMNH. The OXUM singleton labelled “Batchian.” (= Batjan I.), the others labelled “Bac.” Both OXUM cards also have old labels, “Myrmica poneroides.”


Myrmica punctata F. Smith, 1860b: 108

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac 24.” (= Batjan I.).


Myrmica quadrispinosa F. Smith, 1865: 72

Holotype worker minor in OXUM. Labelled “S” (= Salwatty I.).


Myrmica ruficeps F. Smith, 1861b: 46

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Tond. 6” (= Tondano, Sulawesi).


Myrmica scabrosa F. Smith, 1859a: 147

One worker syntype in OXUM. Without a locality label but with “scabrosa” in Smith’s handwriting, and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Donisthorpe (1932c) noted that two specimens were present in OXUM at that time. A very dirty specimen (now cleaned and remounted), identical to the OXUM syntype, was found in BMNH. I suspect that this specimen is the second syntype.


Myrmica suspiciosa F. Smith, 1859a: 148

Two worker minor syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.”


Myrmica thoracica F. Smith, 1859a: 148

Three worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.” (= Aru I., New Guinea).


Myrmica umbripennis F. Smith, 1863: 21

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “M” (= Misool I.).


Myrmica vastator F. Smith, 1857a: 71

Four worker syntypes in OXUM. Locality label is missing (should be “SING.”), but Wallace’s original note, “House ants Singapore, very destructive,” is still attached.


Myrmica vexator F. Smith, 1861b: 47

Three worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Ter. 21.” (= Ternate I.)

Odontomachus

Odontomachus aciculatus F. Smith, 1863: 19

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “M” (= Mysol I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Odontomachus animosus F. Smith, 1860b: 102

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Dor. 30” and “TYPE”. It also bears a Donisthorpe type-label.


Odontomachus bispinosus F. Smith, 1858b: 199

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Ega” and “58/6.” Acc. Reg.: “1858 no. 6 Amazon (Ega on the Riv.) purchased of Stevens.”

In the original description Smith mentions that the ant was accompanied by a beetle (“a species of Cylistes”) but at some time in the past the card on which they were both mounted has been divided, and the beetle removed.


Odontomachus cephalotes F. Smith, 1863: 19

Two worker syntypes in OXUM, both labelled “Cer.E” (= Ceram); one of them also bears a Donisthorpe type-label.


Odontomachus hirsutiusculus F. Smith, 1858b: 78

Two syntype workers in BMNH. Both labelled, “Santarem. 54/63.” Acc. Reg.: “1854 no. 63 (Oct. 11) Brazil (Santarem on the Amazon). Purchased from Stevens. Collected by Mr Bates, Alta de Chai near Santarem.”


Odontomachus infandus F. Smith, 1858b: 81

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. One is labelled, “Phil. Isla.” and “O. infandus Sm. Type.” The other has, “Phil. Islds. 48/60.” Acc. Reg.: “1848 no. 60. Hong Kong and Philippine Islds. Presented by J.C. Bowring, esq.”


Odontomachus malignus F. Smith, 1859a: 144

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru 55,” and bearing a Donisthorpe type-label. Two other workers, similarly mounted, are in OXUM; one is from “M” (= Mysol I.), the other is from “Mat” (= Martabello I.).


Odontomachus maxillaris F. Smith, 1858b: 77

Syntype queen in BMNH. Labelled, “Ega. 56/69. Acc. Reg.: “1856 no. 69 (June 9). Amazon (Ega, on the R.) purchased from Stevens. Collected by H.W. Bates in the months of July, Aug. Sept. 1855.”

The syntype worker mentined by Smith was not found. He gives two localities in the original description, Ega and Villa Nova (coll. H.W. Bates). It is assumed that Ega referred to the queen (described first), and Villa Nova to the worker, now lost.


Odontomachus nigriceps F. Smith, 1860b: 103

There is no way of knowing if the OXUM specimen marked as “type” by Donisthorpe is the true holotype or not. There is a second specimen, in BMNH, that is mounted in the same way as the OXUM specimen, but the forms of the data labels differ.

OXUM specimen has the standard paper disc, marked “DORY” (= Dory I., New Guinea), without other information.

BMNH specimen has a printed rectangular label, “59/58 Dory. New Guinea.” Acc. Reg.: “1859 no. 58 (June 24) Dory, New Guinea. Purchased of Mr S. Stevens; collected by Mr Alfred Wallace.”


Odontomachus quadrispinosus F. Smith, 1858b: 78

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Brazil” and also with a Farren White label. It is probable that this determination is spurious, a secondary labelling by Farren White, who seems to have had a habit of throwing away original data labels and substituting his own. Also in BMNH are two quadrispinosus workers with the data, “Para 48/133.” Acc. Reg.: “1848 no. 133. Para. Bt of Stevens. Collected by Mssrs Bates & Wallace.” One of these specimens is sublabelled “172.” I suspect that all three together constituted the original syntype series.


Odontomachus rixosus F. Smith, 1857a: 64

The specimen at OXUM labelled as “type” by Donisthorpe may not be so. One cannot be positive as there is no datum number on the disc of this specimen, which merely states “SING” (= Singapore). However, a specimen in BMNH, labelled “SING. 55/9” has the following information in Acc. Reg.: “1859 no. 9. Singapore (Malacca), purchased of Stevens. Collected by Mr A.R. Wallace.”

I suspect that this BMNH specimen may be the true holotype but have no way of conclusively proving it. The only evidence in support of this view is that in the original description of rixosus, Smith states that the thorax is “tranversely striated.” The BMNH specimen more or less fits this description, whereas the OXUM specimen has weakly whorled, not transverse, striation on the pronotum.


Odontomachus ruficeps F. Smith, 1858b: 81

Holotype worker in BMNH. The specimen matches the description very well but Smith merely gives “Australia” as the type-locality, whereas the specimen has, “O. ruficeps Sm. Type,” and “New Holl, 44/4.” Acc. Reg.: “1844 no. 4 New Holland n. and nw. coast. Presented by Haslar Hospital. Collected by Bynoe esq. Surgeoan R.N.”


Odontomachus rugosus F. Smith, 1857a: 65

The specimen labelled as type by Donisthorpe in OXUM is not type-material. Its pin bears two locality labels, one of which is “SAR” (= Sarawak), and the other “Gilolo” (= Halmahera). The type-locality given by Smith (1857a: 65) is Singapore. This is the only Smith coll. specimen of rugosus detected in OXUM or BMNH. Possibility that the labels have been switched at some date after 1857?


Odontomachus saevissimus F. Smith, 1858b: 80

Holotype in BMNH, labelled “Ceram 55/8”. Acc. Reg.: “1855 no. 8 (March 7) Ceram & Amboina. Purchased of S. Stevens. Collected by Madame Ida Pfeiffer during her recent travels. They are ticketed “Ceram.”

A dealate queen in OXUM is labelled as type, from “Bac” (= Batjan I.). This is not type-material (locality incorrect) but is most probably the queen referred to by Smith, F. 1860b: 102. Also in OXUM is a worker with the same “Bac” locality.


Odontomachus simillimus F. Smith, 1858b: 80

Type-localities are give as Fiji, and secondarily Ceylon (= Sri Lanka). As far as can be ascertained, all the types were queens. I can find no trace of any Smith material from these localities at OXUM, where the only specimen present in Smith’s collection is a dealate queen from Waigeo I., New Guinea.

In BMNH there is a single, damaged queen from Ceylon which may be one of the original type-series, labelled “Ceylon. 50/56,” and also with a “Farren White” label. Acc. Reg.: “1850 no. 56 (June 17) Ceylon. Presented by Dr Joseph Hooker FRS.” In addition, BMNH has a single, headless, alate queen from Fiji, without further data, that may be one of the original specimens.


Odontomachus tyrannicus F. Smith, 1859a: 144

Holotype worker, in OXUM; “Aru 54”, and also with a Donisthorpe type-label. A second worker is present, from Waigeo I.


Odontomachus tyrannicus F. Smith, 1861b: 44

Two syntype workers in BMNH. Both specimens have been equipped with a blue “syntype” disc. The labels on the two are slightly different, but there is no way of proving if one is not an original syntype.

Worker 1, labelled “Celebes”; written under the stage-card is, “Celebes. Taken by Wallace n. sp.”

Worker 2, labelled “Celebes, Manado. 60/76.” Acc. Reg. “1860 no. 76 (Sept. 13) Celebes (Manado). Purchased of Stevens. Collected by A. Wallace.”

Pachycondyla

Pachycondyla astuta F. Smith, 1858b: 107

Three worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “n. Holl.” (New Holland = Australia.)


Pachycondyla bispinosa F. Smith, 1858b: 107

Holotype (presumed) worker in BMNH. Labelled “type. Sm. Coll. 79. 32.” No locality is given. In the original description Smith gives the type-locality as “Australia?.” There is thus no proof that this specimen is in fact the holotype. If the “79” refers to 1879, that would rule out this specimen.


Pachycondyla melancholica F. Smith, 1865: 71

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “M” (= Morotai (Morty) I.), and on a square of card, “TYPE.”


Pachycondyla montezumia F. Smith, 1858b: 108

One syntype queen in BMNH (syntype male not found). Labelled “Mex. 56/143.” Acc. Reg.: “1856 no. 143. Mexico. Purchased of Cuming. Collected by M. Sallé on and around the volcano of Orizaba, two or three are from St Thomas in the West Indies.”


Pachycondyla punctata F. Smith, 1858b: 108

Syntype worker and male, not found in BMNH. A queen of this species in BMNH, labelled as type of punctata, belongs to that species but has a det. label “P. pilosula Sm.” and a white, rectangular label “Type. F. Smith coll. 79.22.” The original description of punctata did not mention a queen, and the date, (18)79, is far too late.


Pachycondyla piliventris F. Smith, 1858b: 107

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “N. Holl. Ent. Club 44-12.” Acc. Reg.: “1844 no. 12. Presented by the Entomological Club.” Smith gives “Australia (Adelaide)” as the type-locality.


Pachycondyla simillima F. Smith, 1858b: 105

Holotype queen (badly damaged) in BMNH. Labelled “simillima Smith,” and “C.G. Hope” (= Cape of Good Hope, South Africa).


Pachycondyla striata F. Smith, 1858b: 106

Five worker syntypes in BMNH and one worker syntype in OXUM. Labelled “Rio. 57/63.” Acc. Reg.: “1857 no. 63 (June 22). Province of Rio. Presented by Rev. Hamlet Clark.”

Three more workers in BMNH are mounted in the same way as the syntypes but have passed through the Farren White collection and had their data labels altered to read “Rio. H. Clark.” These are probably also syntypes.

Pheidolacanthinus

Pheidolacanthinus armatus F. Smith, 1865: 75

Holotype worker major in OXUM. Labelled “S.” (= Salwatty I.).

Pheidole

Pheidole hospes F. Smith, 1865: 74

One syntype worker major and one syntype worker minor in OXUM. Labelled “N” (= New Guinea).


Pheidole megacephala F. Smith, 1860b: 112

Holotype worker major in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 53.”


Pheidole militaris F. Smith, 1860a: 74

One syntype worker major and one syntype worker minor in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.”


Pheidole mordax F. Smith, 1863: 22

Holotype worker major in OXUM. Labelled “M.”


Pheidole notabilis F. Smith, 1860b: 111

One syntype worker major and one syntype worker minor in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 50.”


Pheidole pabulator F. Smith, 1860b: 112

Two syntypes worker major and two syntype worker minor (on a single card) in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 2.”


Pheidole penetralis F. Smith, 1863: 23

NO TYPE-MATERIAL FOUND. Also not found by Donisthorpe (1932c). Type-material should be one or more minor workers, from Misool I. (“M.”).


Pheidole plagiaria F. Smith, 1860b: 112

Three syntypes worker major and three syntypes worker minor in OXUM. Arranged on three cards as follows:

Card 1. 1 major and 1 minor, labelled “Bac.” With Smith’s original label plus Donisthorpe det. labels.

Card 2. 2 majors, labelled “Bac. 26.” With Smith det. label “plagiaria.”

Card 3. 2 minors, labelled “Bac. 35.” With Smith det. label “plagiaria.”


Pheidole rubra F. Smith, 1860b: 111

Two syntypes worker major and three syntype worker minor in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 44.”


Pheidole silenus F. Smith, 1858b: 176

One syntype worker major in OXUM, one syntype worker major in BMNH. Both labelled “SING.”


Pheidole singularis F. Smith, 1863: 22

Holotype worker major in OXUM. Labelled “M.”

Physatta

Physatta dromedarius F. Smith, 1857a: 78

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.” Waist segments and gaster missing.

Plectroctena

Plectroctena mandibularis F. Smith, 1858b: 101

One syntype queen (ergatoid) and one syntype male in BMNH. Labelled “Port Natal. 58/13.” Acc. Reg.: “ 1858 no. 13. Port Natal. Purchased of Stevens. Collected by Gueinzius.”

In the original description Smith initially refers to the specimens as worker and male. He states, “worker not known” but goes on to say that the two were taken “in coitu.” The two BMNH specimens are certainly a male and an ergatoid queen. They were originally mounted on a single pin, the male above the ergatoid. The male has been remounted, separately.

Podomyrma

Podomyrma basalis F. Smith, 1859a: 147

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Aru,” and each with the figure “4” in the lower left corner of the stage card.

The four species described by Smith (1859a) were the first species in Podomyrma after he had defined the genus. The numbers written on the stage cards of his specimens correspond to the order of description of the four species: 1 femorata, 2 striata, 3 laevifrons, 4 basalis.


Podomyrma femorata F. Smith, 1859a: 145

Two worker syntypes, one queen syntype in OXUM. One worker labelled “Aru 30,” (= Aru I., New Guinea), all syntypes labelled “femorata,” and the workers each with “worker 1” on their stage cards. The dissected mouthparts of another specimen are glued to two separate cards.

See the note under Podomyrma basalis.


Podomyrma laevifrons F. Smith, 1859a: 146

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. One of them labelled “Aru 20,” and both with the figure “3” written on their stage cards.

See the note under Podomyrma basalis.


Podomyrma laevissima F. Smith, 1863: 20

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “M.” (= Misool I.).


Podomyrma nitida F. Smith, 1860b: 110

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Dor.” (= Dory I., New Guinea). A second specimen is in BMNH, labelled “M.” (= Morotai I.).


Podomyrma ruficeps F. Smith, 1863: 20

One worker syntype in OXUM, one worker syntype in BMNH. OXUM syntype labelled “M.” BMNH syntype labelled “Mysol.”


Podomyrma silvicola F. Smith, 1860b: 110

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac 27.”


Podomyrma simillima F. Smith, 1860b: 111

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bach 28.”


Podomyrma striata F. Smith, 1859a: 146

One worker syntype in OXUM, one worker syntype in BMNH. OXUM specimen labelled “Aru 58/23. striata Sm.” and with the figure “2” written on the stage card. BMNH specimen is labelled only “striata Sm.” and with the figure “2” on the stage card. It has a Donithorpe “compared with type” label but is certainly a syntype.

See the note under Podomyrma basalis.

Polyrhachis

Polyrhachis acantha F. Smith, 1860b: 98

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis acasta F. Smith, 1860b: 100

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 5” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Pin shifted in the past from bottom right hand corner of stage card to middle bottom.

Three other workers in the OXUM collection may have their origins in the same series. All have had the pin shifted as in the holotype. However, there are no original data discs on these specimens, just a rectangle of blue paper with the letter “B.” If this was Smith’s doing I feel sure he would have put “Bac.” because “B,” in his system, is the abbreviation for Bouru.


Polyrhachis alphenus F. Smith, 1860b: 100

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis alpheus F. Smith, 1863: 14

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Wag.” (= Waigeo I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Gaster of holotype is missing.


Polyrhachis amanus F. Smith, 1861b: 41

One worker syntype in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with the figure “15” written in pencil on the stage card; also with a Donisthorpe type-label.

One worker syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Tond. 15,” and with the figure “15” also written in pencil on the stage card.


Polyrhachis atropos F. Smith, 1860b: 100

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Dor.” (= Dory I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis bellicosus F. Smith, 1859a: 142

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru 32” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis bubastes F. Smith, 1863: 15

One worker syntype and one dealate queen syntype in OXUM. Labelled “Wag.” (= Waigeo I., New Guinea), each with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis carbonarius F. Smith, 1857a: 60

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “36 MAL.” (= Malacca, West Malaysia) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis chalybeus F. Smith, 1857a: 61

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “MAL-CA,” and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Smith gives the type-locality as “Singapore, Malacca.” Specimens are also present in OXUM from Sarawak (SAR.) and Sumatra (SUM.). One Sumatra specimen has the gaster very finely and densely reticulate-punctate. Normal variation or a separate species?


Polyrhachis chaonia F. Smith, 1861b: 42

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Gil.” (= Gilolo (Halmahera)) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis charaxus F. Smith, 1860b: 98

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac. 22” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis cleophanes F. Smith, 1861b: 41

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Smith notes, “This is very probably the worker of P. vibidia.”


Polyrhachis compressicornis F. Smith, 1860a: 69

One worker syntype and one dealate queen syntype in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi), the worker with a Donisthorpe type-label.

Smith did not give a type-locality in the original description of this species. The only specimens in OXUM that met the original description of this species were these two from Makassar, the worker of which was already regarded as a type by Donisthorpe. I can find no reason to doubt his designation.


Polyrhachis constructor F. Smith, 1857a: 60

Holotype alate queen in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.” (= Sarawak) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis cuspidatus F. Smith, 1857a: 63

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.”


Polyrhachis defensus F. Smith, 1857a: 59

One worker syntype in OXUM. Labelled “SING. 9” (= Singapore) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. A second syntype recorded by Smith, from Java, could not be found in OXUM or BMNH.


Polyrhachis democles F. Smith, 1861b: 40

Holotype dealate queen in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis derecynus F. Smith, 1871: 316

This is Smith’s replacement name for his P. dolomedes of 1863: 16, a junior primary homonym.


Polyrhachis diaphantus F. Smith, 1861b: 40

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Both labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis dolomedes F. Smith, 1863: 14

One worker syntype and one queen syntype in OXUM (on a single piece of card); one worker syntype in BMNH. The OXUM specimens have a Donisthorpe type-label and the BMNH specimen has a Donisthorpe “compared with type” label. However, when the writing on the underside of the stage cards is consulted, it becomes obvious that all three were originally mounted together and that the card has been divided at a later date.

The underside of the stage card of the BMNH specimen has, “P”, plus part of a letter “D,” and “Ceram.” The OXUM card has “Dolomedes” (with part of the “D” missing). The two cards fit together perfectly to read, “P, Dolomedes. Ceram” (= Seram I.).


Polyrhachis dolomedes F. Smith, 1863: 16

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Wag.” (= Waigeo I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label “dolomedes.” Below this is a Donisthorpe det. label “derecynus,” Smith’s replacement name for this homonym.


Polyrhachis equinus F. Smith, 1857a: 63

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 21” (= Sarawak) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis eudora F. Smith, 1860b: 99

TYPE-MATERIAL NOT FOUND. A queen in OXUM and a worker in BMNH were formerly regarded as syntypes of this species. Both are labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.), the locality given by Smith, and the queen has a Donisthorpe type-label. However, it is apparent from Smith’s description and figure that true eudora belongs in subgenus Myrmothrinax, whereas both these specimens are of subgenus Myrma. They are not type-material of eudora.


Polyrhachis euryalus F. Smith, 1863: 16

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “M.” (= Misool I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis eurytus F. Smith, 1861b: 43

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis exasperatus F. Smith, 1861b: 41

One worker syntype in OXUM; one worker syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi), and with the figure “2” written in pencil, bottom right on the stage card. OXUM syntype with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis fervens F. Smith, 1860b: 101

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Amb.” (= Ambon I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis flavicornis F. Smith, 1857a: 63

One worker syntype and one alate queen syntype in OXUM. Labelled “SING. 16” (= Singapore) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis geometricus F. Smith, 1859a: 141

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aroo” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis hector F. Smith, 1857a: 62

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SING. 9” (= Singapore) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis hector F. Smith, 1859a: 142

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aroo” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Below this is a Donisthorpe det. label “relucens subsp. andromache.”


Polyrhachis hippomanes F. Smith, 1861b: 43

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis hostilis F. Smith, 1859a: 139

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis irritabilis F. Smith, 1859a: 141

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aroo” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis ithonus F. Smith, 1860b: 99

One worker syntype and one queen syntype in OXUM. Both labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.) and the queen with a Donisthorpe type-label.

Other workers of this species are present in OXUM, from “Wag.” (= Waigeo I.) and “M.” (= Misool I.).


Polyrhachis labella F. Smith, 1860b: 101

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis laevigatus F. Smith, 1857a: 62

Holotype alate queen in OXUM. Labelled “MAL. 12” (= Malacca, West Malaysia) and “Mt Ophir. 4000.” and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis laevissimus F. Smith, 1859a: 141

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aroo 25” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label, and also with a Donisthorpe det. label “levior Roger.” Head of holotype is missing.


Polyrhachis longipes F. Smith, 1859a: 140

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru. 18” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis lycidas F. Smith, 1861b: 43

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis marginatus F. Smith, 1859a: 139

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aroo” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Other specimens in OXUM are from Batjan I., Wigeo I. and Halmahera; with a specimen of indeterminate locality “T” (= Timor?).


Polyrhachis merops F. Smith, 1860b: 98

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis metella F. Smith, 1860b: 99

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Dor. 15” (= Dory I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis modestus F. Smith, 1857a: 62

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “SINC” (= Singapore) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis mucronatus F. Smith, 1859a: 140

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aroo” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis mutiliae F. Smith, 1861b: 39

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi), one of them with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis neptunus F. Smith, 1865: 69

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “N.” (= New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis nigriceps F. Smith, 1863: 17

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Wag.” (= Waigeo I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis nitidus F. Smith, 1857a: 61

Holotype alate queen in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.” (= Sarawak) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis nudatus F. Smith, 1860a: 71

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. The head of the holotype is missing.


Polyrhachis numeria F. Smith, 1861b: 42

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis olenus F. Smith, 1861b: 39

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis orsylla F. Smith, 1861b: 39

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis pandarus F. Smith, 1857a: 62

One worker syntype in OXUM; one worker syntype in BMNH. Labelled “SAR.” (= Sarawak); the OXUM specimen with a Donisthorpe type-label. Smith gives some other localities for this species: Singapore, Java and Philippines. These specimens were not found.


Polyrhachis paromalus F. Smith, 1863: 15

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Ceram” (= Seram I.) on underside of stage card, and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis paxillus F. Smith, 1863: 17

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Mat” (= Martabello I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis peregrinus F. Smith, 1860a: 71

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis phyllophilus F. Smith, 1860a: 69

Two worker syntypes in BMNH; one worker syntype in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Suawesi), the OXUM specimen with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis ruficornis F. Smith, 1857a: 60

Holotype alate queen in OXUM. Labelled “SAR” (= Sarawak) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis rufofemoratus F. Smith, 1859a: 142

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru 7” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.

Additional specimens are present in OXUM, from “Ceram” (= Seram I.), “Wag.” (= Waigeo I.) and “Gor.” (=?).


Polyrhachis rugifrons F. Smith, 1860a: 70

One worker syntype and one dealate queen syntype in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi), the queen with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis saevissimus F. Smith, 1860a: 71

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis sculpturatus F. Smith, 1860a: 70

One worker syntype and one alate queen syntype in OXUM; one worker syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi), the queen with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis scutulatus F. Smith, 1859a: 140

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru 59” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. A second specimen from Aru is present, marked “Aru 56,” but the style of writing is different from the holotype’s label and the “56” appears to have been added separately, as it is in a different colour of ink. Writing on the holotype label is homogeneous.


Polyrhachis serratus F. Smith, 1859a: 140

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Aru.” and marked as holotype. This specimen matches the original description and has the correct type-locality.

The specimen in OXUM, labelled “Aru 50” and with a Donisthorpe type-label, is not a type, and not a specimen of serratus. It entirely fails to match the original description, but compares well with a syntype of australis Forel that is in BMNH coll. Accordingly the OXUM specimen has been labelled, “australis Forel. Bolton det. 73,” and “not a type, not serrata.”


Polyrhachis sparaxes F. Smith, 1863: 16

An alate queen in OXUM, labelled “M.” (= Misool I.) has a Donisthorpe type-label. The locality is correct and the specimen fits the original description reasonably well, but it has a pair of short, broad propodeal spines. Smith states in the original description, “thorace inermi,” and does not mention propodeal spines at all. Because of this a note has been pinned beside the specimen in OXUM, “does not fit original description – see notes.” However, no other specimen approaches the original description as closely as this one.


Polyrhachis textor F. Smith, 1857a: 60

Holotype worker in OXUM. With a Donisthorpe type-label but lacks an original data disc. Type-locality given by Smith is “Malacca” (West Malaysia). The specimen matches the description very well and appears to be a valid type.


Polyrhachis trispinosus F. Smith, 1861b: 40

Holotype dealate queen in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis trophimus F. Smith, 1863: 14

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Cer. E” (= Seram I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis valerus F. Smith, 1861b: 40

The specimen in OXUM labelled as type by Donisthorpe matches the rather poor description well, but the data label upon it reads “Men.” (= Manado, Sulawesi). The type-loclaity recorded by Smith is “Celebes, Tondano.”


Polyrhachis vestitus F. Smith, 1860: 71

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis vibidia F. Smith, 1861b: 42

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis vindex F. Smith, 1857a: 64

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 22” (= Sarawak) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis villipes F. Smith, 1857a: 61

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Sar. 15” (= Sarawak) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. A second specimen, from Sumatra, is in OXUM.


Polyrhachis xiphias F. Smith, 1863: 16

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Wag” (= Waigeo I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Polyrhachis zopyrus F. Smith, 1861b: 43

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.

A second specimen from “Tond.” in OXUM, but with the data disc slightly different, has been labelled “type-series?”

Ponera

Ponera aethiopica F. Smith, 1858b: 91

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “S. Africa. 40.6.26.613.” These numbers are on a disc, arranged around a central pin with “40” at the top. Acc. Reg. reads: “40.6.26 South Africa (Cape Colony) no. 613 Formica. Bought of Dr Krauss.”


Ponera aliena F. Smith, 1858b: 99

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Brazil, Swainson,” and “type. F. Sm. Coll. 79.22.” Another specimen, originally regarded as a second syntype of aliena, is a worker of Hypoponera gleadowi (Forel), according to a det. label applied by R.W. Taylor, 25.iv.1965.


Ponera apicalis F. Smith, 1857a: 66

Holotype dealate queen in OXUM. Labelled “SAR” (= Sarawak) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera attenuata F. Smith, 1858b: 91

One worker syntype in OXUM, a second in BMNH. Labelled “cgH. Drège” (= Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, plus collector’s name), and numbered “1490.” The OXUM specimen also has a label “P. attenuata MS.”


Ponera caffraria F. Smith, 1858b: 91

Holotype alate queen in BMNH. Labelled “Port Natal. 56/63.” Acc. Reg.: “1856 no. 63 (May 24) Port Natal. Purchased of Stevens. Collected by Mr Plant.”


Ponera carbonaria F. Smith, 1858b: 97

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Ponera carbonaria Smith. Quito,” and “type. F. Smith coll. 79.22.”


Ponera crudelis F. Smith, 1858b: 97

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Constancia, Jan. 1857. H. Clark,” and “57/43.” Acc. Reg.: “1857 no. 43 (May 16). Brazil. Presented by the Rev. Hamlet Clark. Collected at Constancia, Petropolis and other localities in the province of Rio. The localities are attached to each specimen.”

Two further workers are present in BMNH that are identical and probably originated in the type-series, but they have passed through the Farren White collection and have lost their original labels.

There is also one worker syntype in OXUM (with a pupa mounted on the same card). Labelled “Constancia, Jan. 1857. H. Clark.”


Ponera cuprea F. Smith, 1860b: 104

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Dor. 19” (= Dory I., New Guinea) and also with a Donisthorpe type-label. The “obscure coppery tinge” reported in the original description appears to have faded away.


Ponera denticulata F. Smith, 1858b: 90

Holotype alate queen in BMNH. Labelled “Ponera denticulata Sm. ?C.G. Hope.” Type-locality of Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) in error. Locality = Singapore, see Donisthorpe, 1943f: 677.


Ponera diminuta F. Smith, 1857a: 69

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 31” (= Sarawak) and with Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera ferox F. Smith, 1865: 70

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “S” (= Salawaty I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera ferruginea F. Smith, 1858b: 100

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Mex. 56/143.” Acc. Reg.: “1856 no. 143. Mexico. Purchased of Cuming. Collected by M. Sallé on and around the volcano of Orizaba, two or three are from St Thomas in the West Indies.”


Ponera geometrica F. Smith, 1857a: 67

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SING 3” (= Singapore) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera intricata F. Smith, 1857a: 67

A worker in OXUM, labelled as type by Donisthorpe, from “SAR” (= Sarawak) also bears a label that appears to be in Kirby’s handwriting, “Polyrhachis intricata.”

In BMNH is a similarly mounted specimen, also labelled “SAR,” but without further data. Blue “syntype” discs have been attached to each of these specimens.

Two further worker specimens that may have been members of the original type-series are in BMNH. One bears a Donisthorpe det. label, “compared with type Diacamma intricata Smith,” and is also labelled, “SAR” and “Borneo 57/36.” Acc. Reg.: “1857 no. 36 Borneo. Purchased of Stevens.” The second (gaster missing) has a Farren White label, and also “SAR. 16.”


Ponera iridescens F. Smith, 1857a: 66

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “SAR.” on one disc and “56/44” on another, and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera inversa F. Smith, 1858b: 96

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “S. Amer. Napo. 51/70.” Acc. Reg.: “1851 no. 70 (July 24). S. America (Napo River). Purchased of Mr Stevens.” One syntype, labelled as type of inversa, fits the original description; the other matches the note on “var.” given by Smith.


Ponera iridipennis F. Smith, 1858b: 85

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “n. Bengal. 42/25.” Acc. Reg.: “1842 no. 25. N. Bengal. Purchd of Miss Campbell. Collected by her brother Lieut. Campbell in the N. part of Bengal presidency.”


Ponera laeviceps F. Smith, 1857a: 69

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “SAR. 40,” and with a Farren White label.


Ponera laevigata F. Smith, 1858b: 98

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Ega. 58/6.” Acc. Reg.: “1858 no. 6. Amazon (Ega on the Riv.). Purchased of Stevens.”


Ponera linearis F. Smith, 1858b: 96

Two worker syntypes and one male syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Santarem, 54/63.” Acc. Reg.: “1854 no. 63 (11 Oct.). Brazil, Santarem on the Amazon. Purchased from Stevens. Collected by Mr Bates, Alta da Chai, nr Santarem.” The specimens are each mounted with a pin through the thorax to card, the latter having a stout pin run through one end, together with a small rectangle of blue card. On the male the card has “male 165,” the workers just the number “165.”

A futher male syntype, in OXUM, has been remounted in the past by removal of the narrow pin through the thorax, and then gummed flat onto a square of card (back of head damaged). On the upper side of the card is the number “165”, and on the underside is “Braz. Santarem.” Also on the pin are three other labels: a small blue rectangle; “Ponera linearis Smith;” and “Smith Coll. Form. 96.”


Ponera maligna F. Smith, 1861b: 44

One worker syntype and one dealate queen syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Celebes. Manado. 60/76.” Acc. Reg.: “1860 no. 76 (Sept. 13). Celebes (Manado); purchased of Stevens, collected by A.R. Wallace.”

Two specimens in OXUM (1 worker, 1 queen), marked as types by Donisthorpe, are not type-material. The locality on their data discs is “Tond.” (= Tondano, n.e. Sulawesi); the type-locality specified by Smith is Manado.


Ponera maxillosa F. Smith, 1858b: 93

Four worker syntypes and two male syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Mauritius. 57/140.” Acc. Reg.: “1857 no. 140. Mauritius. Purchased of Dr Beke.”


Ponera metallica F. Smith, 1858b: 94

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Adelaide,” and “Smith coll. pres. by Mrs Farren White. 99-103.” [One specimen designated lectotype by Brown, 1958.]


Ponera mordax F. Smith, 1858b: 98

Three worker syntypes and one queen syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Rio,” and “57/63.” Acc. Reg.: “1857 no. 63 (June 22). Province of Rio. Presented by Rev. Hamlet Clark.”


Ponera mutabilis F. Smith, 1861b: 45

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond” (= Tondano, Sulawesi), and with a Donisthorpe type-label. A second specimen in OXUM, with the label “Tond 9,” is identical but the slight difference in data may indicate that it is not from the same sample.


Ponera nitida F. Smith, 1858b: 92

Five worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled (on the stage card and also on a separate data disc) “Port Natal. 56/63.” Acc. Reg.: “1856 no. 63 (May 24). Port Natal. Purchased from Stevens. Collected by Mr Plant.”


Ponera nitida F. Smith, 1861b: 45

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi), and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera oculata F. Smith, 1858b: 93

Two male syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Macintyre Riv. 51/36.” Acc. Reg.: 1851 no. 36. Hunter River and Macintyre River. Purchased from Mr Ker.”


Ponera pallida F. Smith, 1858b: 85

Holotype male in BMNH. Labelled “Birmah. 57/16.” Acc. Reg.: “1857 no. 16 (Feb. 14). Birmah. Purchased from Stevens. Collected by Mrs Waring.”


Ponera pallidicornis F. Smith, 1860a: 73

Holotype male in OXUM. Labelled “Mak” (= Makassar, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera pallidipennis F. Smith, 1860a: 73

Holotype male in OXUM. Labelled “Mak” (= Makassar, Sulawesi) and with a Donisrhorpe type-label.


Ponera pallipes F. Smith, 1858b: 87

Holotype male in BMNH. Labelled “Java. 46/108.” Acc. Reg.: “1846 no. 108. Java. Purchased of Argent.”


Ponera parallela F. Smith, 1859a: 143

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aru” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. A second specimen in OXUM is from the same locality and has the data label written in the same thickly-marked ink, but the method of mounting isnot the same. Nevetheless, this may also be from the type-series.


Ponera pedunculata F. Smith, 1858b: 96

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Rio. Constancia.”

A specimen in BMNH previously indicated as type is labelled “Ega. 58/6” (= Brazil) and therefore is not type-material. A specimen in OXUM has “pedunculata” on a label but no other data. All specimens represent a single species.


Ponera pestilentia F. Smith, 1858b: 92

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Sierra Leone.” Data of original description gives D.F. Morgan as collector.


Ponera pilosa F. Smith, 1858b: 95

Holotype male in BMNH. Labelled “Brazil. Villa Nova.” There is another male in OXUM, mounted as the holotype but without the correct data labels.


Ponera pilosula F. Smith, 1858b: 95

A remounted worker in BMNH is labelled “type” and has a red disc. Apart from this the specimen has only a square of yellow paper and the label “Smith coll. Presented by Mrs Farren White.” A second worker, that has not been remounted, has the same labels but lacks the “type” disc, and has a white rectangular label “Frstrm.” Type-locality given by Smith is merely “Brazil.” This is absent from both specimens.


Ponera pompiloides F. Smith, 1857a: 69

Type-series males equivocal. Type-locality of this taxon is Borneo (Sarawak). A single male in OXUM, labelled “Sing.” (= Singapore) bears a Donisthorpe type-label. A second male, in BMNH and also labelled “Sing.”, is identical and appears to be from the same series. Both species more or less fit the very poor original description, but their identity as type-material must be in doubt as the locality is wrong. Or, just possibly, Smith recorded the locality incorrectly.


Ponera purpurea F. Smith, 1863: 18

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Gil” (= Gilolo (Halmahera) I.), and with a Donisthorpe type-label.

A second specimen, identical to the holotype and mounted in the same manner, is present in OXUM, but the locality label does not appear to read “Gil.”


Ponera quadridentata F. Smith, 1859a: 143

Holotype alate queen in OXUM. Labelled “Aru” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera reticulata F. Smith, 1858b: 85

Holotype male in BMNH. Labelled “Birmah. 57/16.” Acc. Reg.: “1857 no. 16. Birmah. Purchased from Stevens. Collected by Mrs Waring.” Also with a Donisthorpe det. label dated 30.vii.1932, “Odontoponera transversa Smith, male.”


Ponera rubra F. Smith, 1857a: 66

Holotype dealate queen in OXUM. Labelled “SING. 7” and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera rufipes “Smith” [error]

A specimen in OXUM, identified as “rufipes Sm.” has a Donisthorpe type-label “Ponera rufipes Smith, TYPE,” which is an error. No species P. rufipes was ever described by Smith. The genuine author is Jerdon, 1851; none of his material is known to have survived. The OXUM specimen appears to have originated in the Wallace collection.


Ponera rugosa F. Smith, 1857a: 66

Holotype dealate queen in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 20,” and “rugosa Sm.” There is also a Donisthorpe type-label and one that states “Stictoponera wallacei Donisthorpe,” his replacement name for the preoccupied P. rugosa F. Smith.

There is a specimen in BMNH that is incorrectly labelled as type of rugosa; it is actually a worker of Gnamptogenys menadensis (Mayr).


Ponera scalprata F. Smith, 1858b: 84

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “N. Ind. 54/16.” Acc. Reg.: “1854 no. 16. N. India (Sikkim, Him.) From Dr Hooker’s collection. Collected by Dr Hooker during his travels in n. India. A few of the insects were from Khasya Hills.”

A second scalprata specimen is in OXUM, but here the usual data label is missing and has been replaced by a white card square with, “Phil. N. India.” The half-written then deleted Phil (= Philippines) raises the possibility that this specimen may not be from the original type-series.


Ponera sculpturata F. Smith, 1859a: 142

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Aroo” (= Aru I., New Guinea) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera simillima F. Smith, 1860b: 104

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera simillima F. Smith, 1860b: 105

In the original description Smith states that the type-specimens are workers, but only queens of this taxon are present in his collection. It is assumed here that he miswrote the caste in the description, though this can not be proved; the four queens of the species are regarded here as the syntypes, though perhaps incorrectly.

One dealate queen syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Dor. 20” (= Dory I., New Guinea).

Three dealate queen syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Dor.” One specimen has a Donisthorpe type-label and a det. label “P. poultoni,” Donisthorpe’s replacement name for the preoccupied simillima. One of the others has a Donisthorpe det. label from 1931, “simillima.”


Ponera solitaria F. Smith, 1860b: 103

Holotype male in OXUM. Labelled “Bac” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. The head of the holotype is glued separately onto the stage card.


Ponera solitaria F. Smith, 1874: 404

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Japan. 74/16.” Acc. Reg.: “1874 no. 16. 2 Ponera solitaria. Hiogo (Japan). Presented by Fred. Smith. These insects were all collected by Mr Geo. Lewis, except those from Hokadadi which were collected by Mr Whiteley and Mr R. Fortune.” In the original description Smith gives the type-locality merely as “Hiogo.”


Ponera spiniventris F. Smith, 1858b: 92

Male in BMNH, labelled “Afric. spiniventris Smith.” This is probably the holotype, but the data should be, “Sierra Leone, D.F. Morgan.” Smith stated, “in all probablility this is the male of P. pestilentia.”


Ponera striata F. Smith, 1860b: 104

No type-material was found at either OXUM or BMNH. A single worker in OXUM fits the description reasonably well and is labelled “striata,” but its locality of “M” (Mysol I.) is incorrect, not the stated type-locality of “Bac” (= Batjan I.).


Ponera sulcata F. Smith, 1858b: 99

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Ega,” and “58/6.” Acc. Reg.: “Amazon (Ega on the Rio). Purchased of Stevens.”


Ponera tortuolosa F. Smith, 1858b: 99

Holotype worker in BMNH. Labelled “Swainson. Brazil.”


Ponera tortuolosa F. Smith, 1863: 18

Type-series is supposed to be two syntypes, one worker and one queen, but the queen cannot be located in either OXUM or BMNH. Two localities were given in the original description, Ceram and Bouru. Donisthorpe, in his review of Smith types, put a type label on a worker specimen with “B” (= Bouru) upon the data disc, indicating it as a type of tortuolosa. However, a second specimen in OXUM has a data disc “Cer.” and a det. label (by Kirby?), and this specimen also has a Donisthorpe type-label stating “tortuolosa.”

It is my opinion that the “Cer.” specimen is the genuine syntype worker and that the “B” worker specimen is not. Comparing both workers to the original description there is agreement on most points, but there are the following differences.

  1. Description says, “striae on prothorax transverse and curved.” The “Cer.” specimen matches this but on the “B” specimen the pronotal striae are notably circular in direction.
  2. Descripton says that behind the pronotum, striae are, “oblique, running from the middle forwards down the sides.” The “Cer.” specimen matches this but the “B” specimen does not.
  3. Description says, “First node of abdomen has a curved striation much more delicate than on the thorax.” The “Cer.” specimen matches this but on the “B” specimen striation is visible only on the basal third of the segment, and even here it is extremely faint.

I conclude that the Bouru locality was that of the now lost queen, and have placed a blue “syntype” disc on the Seram worker.


Ponera transversa F. Smith, 1857a: 68

Four worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “SINC. 55/9.” Acc. Reg.: “1855 no. 9. Singapore (Malacca). Purchased of Stevens. Collected by Mr Alfred Wallace.” Two of the specimens also bear Farren White labels and old yellow “cotype” labels, and one has the det. “P. transversa Smith.” These four specimens are equipped with the BMNH blue syntype label.

A worker in OXUM, labelled “Sing. 5,” has been indicated as type by Donisthorpe. This does not appear to belong to the same series as the BMNH specimens and is provisionally excluded from the syntype series.


Ponera tridentata F. Smith, 1858b: 106

Two worker syntypes in BMNH, one worker syntype in OXUM. Of the BMNH specimens, one has two data discs, “SAR.” and “Borneo. 57/36.” Acc. Reg.: “1857 no. 36 (May 2) Borneo. Purchased of Stevens.” The second is labelled as “P. tridentata Sm. type” and has a note in Donisthorpe’s handwriting, “Borneo. Sarawak.”

The OXUM syntype, labelled only “SAR.” has been remounted in the past by cutting short the large pin through the thorax, and driving it through a piece of card. In the BMNH specimens the original pin is the only one present.


Ponera truncata F. Smith, 1860a: 72

Holotype dealate queen in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera unicolor F. Smith, 1860a: 73

Holotype male in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi) and with a Donisthorpe type-label. Gastral apex of holotype is missing. There is a second male in OXUM, from Tondano (Sulawesi), apparently of the same species and complete.


Ponera vagans F. Smith, 1860b: 103

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac” (= Batjan I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.


Ponera versicolor F. Smith, 1857a: 65

Two worker syntypes in BMNH. Labelled “Phil. Isla. 42/22.” Acc. Reg.: “1842 no. 22. Philippine Islds. Purchased of Mr Cuming.”

Smith gives two localities in the original description, Sarawak and Philippines. A specimen from “SAR” (= Sarawak), the correct type-locality for versicolor, has a Donisthorpe label that declares it to be the type, but it also carries a Donisthorpe det.-label “rugosum Le Guil.” This appears to be the correct det. for the specimen as all versicolor material that has been seen very clearly exhibits the colour characters given by Smith: “P. purpureo et violaceo variegata........”, and, “Black, with purple, violet and green tints in different lights,” and, “Some specimens of this species are entirely bronze-green.” The two Philippines workers in BMNH show the requisite colours.


Ponera vidua F. Smith, 1857a: 68

Holotype male in OXUM (gaster missing). Labelled “SAR” (= Sarawak) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.

Pseudomyrma

Pseudomyrma carbonaria F. Smith, 1863: 20

One worker syntype in OXUM. Labelled “B” (= Bouru I.). The syntype queen mentioned in the original description was not found.


Pseudomyrma laeviceps F. Smith, 1859a: 145

Holotype worker in OXUM. With two labels, “Aru 21” and “Aru.”


Pseudomyrma modesta F. Smith, 1860b: 106

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.”


Pseudomyrma nitida F. Smith, 1860b: 106

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “Bac.”

Solenopsis

Solenopsis calida F. Smith, 1863: 22

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Cer.” (= Seram I.).


Solenopsis cephalotes F. Smith, 1859a: 149

Three worker syntypes (on a single card) in OXUM. Labelled “Aru.” (= Aru I. New Guinea).

Two specimens in OXUM, labelled by Donisthorpe as syntypes of cephalotes, have “Men.” (= Menado, Sulawesi) as their locality. Smith gives the type-locality as “Aru.” All the specimens, from both localities, appear to be S. geminata (Fabricius).


Solenopsis laboriosa F. Smith, 1861b: 48

Five worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Tond.” (= Tondano, Sulawesi). Each worker is on a separate card with the letter “b” written in the lower left corner.

Donisthorpe (1932c) nominated specimens in OXUM from “Wag.” (= Waigeo I., New Guinea) as type-series of laboriosa. This is incorrect as Smith clearly stated that the type-locality was “Celebes, Tondano.”


Solenopsis laevis F. Smith, 1865: 75

Holotype worker in OXUM. Labelled “M.” (= Morotai I.). Three other specimens, labelled “Morty Isld” are also present in OXUM, but these appear to originate in a different series from the holotype. In addition, three more workers from this series are in BMNH.


Solenopsis pungens F. Smith, 1861b: 48

Two syntype major workers and one syntype minor worker (on separate cards) in OXUM. Each major worker labelled “Menado” and with a Smith det. label “Solenopsis pungens Smith.” The minor worker with “Men. 18” and an attached note explaining that Pheidole pungens was placed in Solenopsis by an oversight. Each of the three cards has the letter “c” in the lower left corner.


Solenopsis transversalis F. Smith, 1860a: 74

Two worker major syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi).

Tapinoma

Tapinoma glabrata F. Smith, 1857a: 58

Three worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Mal 32.”


Tapinoma nitida F. Smith, 1860a: 69

Holotype queen in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.” (= Makassar, Sulawesi).


Tapinoma pratensis F. Smith, 1860b: 97

Four worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Bac 20.”


Tapinoma thoracica F. Smith, 1860a: 69

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “Mak.”

Tetramorium

Tetramorium striatum F. Smith, 1876b: 481

Two workers, one queen and one male syntypes in BMNH. One worker is labelled “P.F. 3/74” (= Peel Forest), the other has “K.C.” (= Kelley’s Creek). Each syntype also has a small rectangular label with “N. Zealand” on the upper side and “76/20” on the underside. The queen and male have no specific locality information.

Typhlatta

Typhlatta laeviceps F. Smith, 1857a: 79

Two worker syntypes in OXUM. Labelled “SAR. 38.”

Typhlopone

Typhlopone serratula F. Smith, 1858b: 111

One worker syntype in BMNH. Labelled “Villa Nova,” and “55/44.” Acc. Reg.: “1855 no. 44 (June 22nd). Amazon. Villa Nova. Bought of Stevens. Collected by Mr Bates.”

The specimen is marked syntype as obviously two workers were originally mounted on the card, but one has long ago fallen off and cannot now be found.

Publications by Frederick Smith

Smith, F. 1851. List of the Specimens of British Animals in the Collection of the British Museum 6. Hymenoptera Aculeata: 134 pp. London. [(31.xii).1851.]

Smith, F. 1852. Descriptions of some hymenopterous insects captured in India, with notes on their oeconomy, by Ezra T. Downes, Esq., who presented them to the Honourable the East India Company. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (2) 9: 44-50. [(31).i.1852.]

Smith, F. 1853. Monograph of the genus Cryptocerus, belonging to the group Cryptoceridae - family Myrmicidae - division Hymenoptera Heterogyna. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (2) 2 (1854): 213-228. [26.xii.1853. Date of publication from Wheeler, G. 1912: 755.]

Smith, F. 1855a. Essay on the genera and species of British Formicidae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (2) 3: 95-112. [9.i.1855.]

Smith, F. 1855b. Essay on the genera and species of British Formicidae (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (2) 3: 113-135. [23.iv.1855.]

Smith, F. 1855c. Descriptions of some species of Brazilian ants belonging to the genera Pseudomyrma, Eciton and Myrmica (with observations on their economy by Mr. H.W. Bates). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (2) 3: 156-169. [6.viii.1855.]

Smith, F. 1857a. Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A.R. Wallace. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 2: 42-88. [2.xi.1857.]

Smith, F. 1857b. Notes on aculeate Hymenoptera, with some observations on their economy. Entomologist's Annual 1858: 34-46. [19.xii.1857.]

Smith, F. 1858a. Revision of an essay on the British Formicidae, published in the Transactions of the Society. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (2) 4: 274-284. [5.iv.1858.]

Smith, F. 1858b. Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum 6 Formicidae: 216 pp. London. [27.iii.1858. Date from Sherborn, 1934 Annals Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 13: 308-312.]

Smith, F. 1859a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A.R. Wallace at the Islands of Aru and Key. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 3: 132-158. [1.ii.1859.]

Smith, F. 1859b. Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum 7 Dorylidae and Thynnidae: 76 pp. London. [23.vii.1859. Date from Sherborn, 1934 Annals Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 13: 308-312.]

Smith, F. 1860a. Descriptions of new species of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A.R. Wallace at Celebes. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 5 (supplement to volume 4): 57-93. [18.vii.1860.]

Smith, F. 1860b. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A.R. Wallace in the Islands of Bachian, Kaisaa, Amboyna, Gilolo, and at Dory in New Guinea. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 5 (supplement to volume 4): 93-143. [18.vii.1860.]

Smith, F. 1860c. Descriptions of new genera and species of exotic Hymenoptera. Journal of Entomology 1: 65-84. [(31).x.1860.]

Smith, F. 1861a. Descriptions of some new species of ants from the Holy Land, with a synonymic list of others previously described. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 6: 31-35. [1.xi.1861.]

Smith, F. 1861b. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A.R. Wallace in the Islands of Ceram, Celebes, Ternate, and Gilolo. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 6: 36-48. [1.xi.1861.]

Smith, F. 1862a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A.R. Wallace in the Islands of Ceram, Celebes, Ternate, and Gilolo (continued). Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 6: 49-66. [1.iii.1862.]

Smith, F. 1862b. Descriptions of new species of aculeate Hymenoptera, collected at Panama by R.W. Stretch, Esq, with a list of described species, and the various localities where they have previously occurred. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (3) 1: 29-48. [7.iv.1862.]

Smith, F. 1862c. Descriptions of new species of Australian Hymenoptera, and of a species of Formica from New Zealand. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (3) 1: 53-62. [29.v.1862.]

Smith, F. 1862d. A list of the genera and species belonging to the family Cryptoceridae, with descriptions of new species; also a list of the species of the genus Echinopla. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (3) 1: 407-416. [17.xi.1862.]

Smith, F. 1863. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A.R. Wallace in the Islands of Mysol, Ceram, Waigiou, Bouru and Timor. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 7: 6-48. [4.iii.1863.]

Smith, F. 1865. Descriptions of new species of hymenopterous insects from the Islands of Sumatra, Sula, Gilolo, Salwatty, and New Guinea, collected by Mr. A.R. Wallace. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 8: 61-94. [13.i.1865.]

Smith, F. 1867. Descriptions of new species of Cryptoceridae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (3) 5: 523-528. [30.xii.1867.]

Smith, F. 1871a. A catalogue of the aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and the Eastern Archipelago. Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology) 11: 285-415. [Pp. 285-348 dated 16.x.1871; pp. 349-415 dated 20.xii.1871.]

Smith, F. 1871b. A catalogue of the British Hymenoptera; Aculeata: 44 pp. Entomological Society of London. [(31.xii).1871.]

Smith, F. 1873. "Exhibitions, &c." Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1873 (Proceedings): viii-ix. [20.v.1873.]

Smith, F. 1874. Descriptions of new species of Tenthredinidae, Ichneumonidae, Chrysididae, Formicidae, &c. of Japan. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (4) 7: 373-409. [(30).vi.1874.]

Smith, F. 1875. Descriptions of new species of Indian aculeate Hymenoptera, collected by Mr. G.R. James Rothney, member of the Entomological Society. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (4) 8: 33-51. [29.v.1875.]

Smith, F. 1876a. Preliminary notice of new species of Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Forficulidae collected in the Island of Rodriguez by the naturalists accompanying the Transit-of-Venus Expedition. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 17: 447-451. [(30).vi.1876.]

Smith, F. 1876b. Descriptions of new species of hymenopterous insects of New Zealand, collected by C.M. Wakefield, Esq., principally in the neighbourhood of Canterbury. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (4) 9: 473-487. [2.xi.1876.]

Smith, F. 1876c. Descriptions of three new species of Hymenoptera (Formicidae) from New Zealand. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (4) 9: 489-492. [23.xii.1876.]

Smith, F. 1876d. Descriptions of new species of Cryptoceridae, belonging to the genera Cryptocerus, Meranoplus and Cataulacus. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (4) 9: 603-612. [23.xii.1876.]

Smith, F. 1877a. Hymenoptera and Diptera (pp. 82-84). In Günther, A. Account of the zoological collection made during the visit of H.M.S. Peterel to the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1877: 64-93. [6.ii.1877.]

Smith, F. 1877b. Descriptions of new species of the genera Pseudomyrma and Tetraponera, belonging to the family Myrmicidae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (4) 10: 57-72. [2.vii.1877.]

Smith, F. 1878a. Descriptions of new species of hymenopterous insects from New Zealand, collected by Prof. Hutton, at Otago. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (4) 11: 1-7. [24.iv.1878.]

Smith, F. 1878b. Scientific Results of the Second Yarkand Mission; based upon the collections and notes of the late Ferdinand Stoliczka, Ph.D. Part 9. Hymenoptera: 22 pp. Calcutta. [(31.xii).1878.]

Smith, F. 1879. Descriptions of new species of aculeate Hymenoptera collected by the Rev. Thos. Blackburn in the Sandwich Islands. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 14: 674-685. [20.v.1879.]