Odontomachus monticola

AntWiki - Where Ant Biologists Share Their Knowledge
Jump to: navigation, search
Odontomachus monticola
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Odontomachus
Species: O. monticola
Binomial name
Odontomachus monticola
Emery, 1892

Odontomachus monticola casent0179010 profile 1.jpg

Odontomachus monticola casent0179010 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


Kazuma et al. (2017) - Distributed mainly throughout south- and southeast Asia. In Japan, O. monticola were originally confined to the southwestern part of the country. Nevertheless, their habitat range has expanded to Tokyo due to climate change over the last few decades. They use their powerful stings to prey upon termites. Although they are not aggressive toward humans, their stings cause intense pain and prolonged itching.


A member of the Odontomachus rixosus group.

Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia.
Oriental Region: Bangladesh, India, Laos, Myanmar (type locality), Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China, Japan.

Check distribution from AntMaps.

Loading map...

Check specimen data from AntWeb


Odontomachus monticola venom sting, sac, and gland: B - venom sac and gland dissected from the abdomen, C - venom sac and gland of panel B magnified.

Kazuma et al (2017) examined the composition of the venom of this ant through both transcriptomic and peptidomic analyses. They found: The transcriptome analysis yielded 49,639 contigs, of which 92 encoded toxin-like peptides and proteins with 18,106,338 mapped reads. We identified six pilosulin-like peptides by transcriptomic analysis in the venom gland. Further, we found intact pilosulin-like peptide 1 and truncated pilosulin-like peptides 2 and 3 by peptidomic analysis in the venom.



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • monticola. Odontomachus monticola Emery, 1892d: 560 (diagnosis in key) (w.) MYANMAR. Emery, 1895k: 463 (q.); Ogata, 1987: 126 (m.). Senior synonym of formosae, pauperculus: Yasumatsu, 1962: 93; of hainanensis, longi, major, punctulatus, striata: Brown, 1976a: 105. See also: Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102.
  • longi. Odontomachus monticola var. longi Forel, 1900c: 58 (w.) INDIA. Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105.
  • punctulatus. Odontomachus monticola r. punctulatus Forel, 1900c: 58 (w.) INDIA. Raised to species: Bingham, 1903: 49; Wheeler, W.M. 1930h: 61; Wu, C.F. 1941: 149. Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105.
  • formosae. Odontomachus monticola var. formosae Forel, 1912a: 46 (w.q.m.) TAIWAN. Subspecies of monticola: Santschi, 1925f: 82. Junior synonym of monticola: Yasumatsu, 1962: 93.
  • major. Odontomachus monticola var. major Forel, 1913f: 183 (w.) TAIWAN. Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105.
  • pauperculus. Odontomachus monticola subsp. pauperculus Wheeler, W.M. 1921c: 530 (w.) CHINA. Junior synonym of monticola: Yasumatsu, 1962: 93.
  • hainanensis. Odontomachus monticola var. hainanensis Stitz, 1925: 115, fig. 3 (w.) CHINA. Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105.
  • striata. Odontomachus latidens susbp. striata Menozzi, 1930d: 329 (w.) CHINA. Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105.



  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1976c. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section A. Introduction, subtribal characters. Genus Odontomachus. Stud. Entomol. 19: 67-171 (page 105, Senior synonym of hainanensis, longi, major, punctulatus and striata)
  • Emery, C. 1892f [1891]. Voyage de M. Ch. Alluaud dans le territoire d'Assinie (Afrique occidentale) en juillet et août 1886. Formicides. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 60: 553-574 (page 560, (diagnosis in key) worker described)
  • Emery, C. 1895m. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. LXIII. Formiche di Birmania del Tenasserim e dei Monti Carin raccolte da L. Fea. Parte II. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 34[=(2(14): 450-483 (page 463, queen described)
  • Kazuma, K., K. Masuko, K. Konno, and H. Inagaki. 2017. Combined Venom Gland Transcriptomic and Venom Peptidomic Analysis of the Predatory Ant Odontomachus monticola. Toxins. 9. doi:10.3390/toxins9100323
  • Ogata, K. 1987a. A generic synopsis of the poneroid complex of the family Formicidae in Japan (Hymenoptera). Part 1. Subfamilies Ponerinae and Cerapachyinae. Esakia 25: 97-132 (page 126, male described)
  • Yasumatsu, K. 1962. Notes on synonymies of five ants widely spread in the Orient (Hym.: Formicidae). Mushi 36: 93-97 (page 93, Senior synonym of formosae (and its junior synonym kuroiwae) and pauperculus)
  • Zi-Wei Yin & Li-Zhen Li 2013. Pengzhongiella daicongchaoi gen. et sp. n., a remarkable myrmecophile (Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae, Batrisitae) from the Gaoligong Mountains. ZooKeys 326: 17–26, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.326.5933 PDF