Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi

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Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Stenammini
Genus: Oxyopomyrmex
Species: O. saulcyi
Binomial name
Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi
Emery, 1889

Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi casent0281610 p 1 high.jpg

Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi casent0281610 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi inhabits dry, arid habitats. Nests are usually located in sandy soil (Forel 1904, Santschi 1923, A. Alicata pers. comm.). Forel (1904) published a very detailed description of O. saulcyi nests found in Tunisia. Nest entrances were single, narrow and surrounded by a crater (2-3 cm diameter, 2-3 cm height). From the entrance hole a long, vertical corridor leads to the first chamber (occupied by gyne and larvae). From the first chamber, a second vertical corridor (15-20 cm length) leads to 2-3 chambers filled by seeds and workers. (Salata and Borowiec 2015)

Identification

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - Worker. Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi belongs to the group of species characterized by a longitudinal striae covering the entire face. It is easy to distinguish it from Oxyopomyrmex polybotesi, Oxyopomyrmex pygmalioni and Oxyopomyrmex negevensis by lacking punctation on dorsal surface of the pronotum, the paler colouration and the flat promesonotum (in dorsal profile); from O. krueperi is distinguished by the lack of sharply curved border between mesonotum and propodeum, the flat promesonotum (in profile view), the distinct rugosity on dorsal surface and lateral surfaces of the pronotum and the paler colouration; from O. laevibus is distinguished by the longitudinal striae on dorsal surface the head, the flat promesonotum in profile view, the paler colouration and the distinct rugosity and striation at the thorax. See also differential diagnosis under O. nigripes.

Gyne. Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi is distinguished from Oxyopomyrmex magnus by the HI<100 and the paler colouration; from Oxyopomyrmex oculatus and Oxyopomyrmex nigripes it differs in the lack of the rugosity between striation at the gena. See also Differential diagnosis under Oxyopomyrmex krueperi.

Male. Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi is distinguished from O. oculatus by the occurrence of longitudinal striae on dorsal surface of the scutum and lacking punctation on it; from Oxyopomyrmex insularis it differs in the occurrence of longitudinal striae at the frons and the vertical striation on dorsal surface the head; from O. nigripes and Oxyopomyrmex emeryi it differs in the occurrence of rugosity between longitudinal striae at the scutellum; from O. magnus and O. emeryi it can be distinguished by the presence of the lobe-like propodeal spines; from O. krueperi it differs in the occurrence of the longitudinal striae on dorsal surface of postpetiole and the brown colouration of the body.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Algeria, France (type locality), Gibraltar, Greece, Iberian Peninsula, Italy, Malta, Morocco (type locality), Portugal, Spain (type locality), Tunisia (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Regional Notes

Portugal

Boieiro et al. (2002) - (collected from the)...field station of the Centro de Biologia Ambiental (Grandola, UTM - 29SNC3818) in an area densely covered by Cistus ladanifer, with an arboreal layer dominated by cork-oak (Quercus suber). (The single) specimen of this granivorous ant species was trapped during 25th June - 5th July 1998.

Morphology

Castro et al. (2016) described a stridulatory structure in this species. They used SEM photographs to discern the details they reported.

A peculiar pars stridens with a pentagonal shape, a rounded apex pointing to its anterior part and the wider side on its posterior end. Width and length have very similar values: 0.08mmand 0.07mm, respectively. The edges of the pars stridens are less defined than in the rest of the studied species. Striation is very pronounced, more than in most of the species described before, with an average of 1.50 μm of ridge width. The ridges and the interspaces get thinner as we move closer to the anterior part of the structure. Pillars are strongly marked, with several teeth and geometric patterns on their base.

Castes

Worker

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • saulcyi. Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi Emery, 1889a: 440 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Senior synonym of cabrerae: Collingwood, 1978: 68. Current subspecies: nominal plus latinodis.
  • cabrerae. Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi var. cabrerae Forel, 1897a: 133 (q.) SPAIN. [Also described as new by Forel, 1897c: 207 (footnote).] Junior synonym of saulcyi: Collingwood, 1978: 68.
  • gaetulus. Oxyopomyrmex gaetulus Santschi, 1929e: 146 (q.m.) MOROCCO. Status as species: Cagniant, 1970a: 416; Cagniant, 2006a: 197. Junior synonym of saulcyi: Salata & Borowiec, 2015b: 55.
  • latinodis. Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi var. latinodis Santschi, 1939c: 2 (w.q.) MOROCCO. Junior synonym of saulcyi: Salata & Borowiec, 2015b: 55.
  • santschii. Oxyopomyrmex santschii Forel, 1904c: 8 (w.q.m.) TUNISIA. Status as species: Emery, 1908e: 464; Karavaiev, 1912a: 11; Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 42; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 68. Senior synonym of siciliana: Emery, 1916b: 146. Junior synonym of saulcyi: Salata & Borowiec, 2015b: 55.
  • siciliana. Oxyopomyrmex santschii var. siciliana Karavaiev, 1912a: 11 (w.) ITALY (Sicily). Junior synonym of santschii: Emery, 1916b: 146. Junior synonym of saulcyi: Salata & Borowiec, 2015b: 55.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - (n=65): HL: 0.637 ± 0.026 (0.598-0.715); HW: 0.592 ± 0.03 (0.547-0.681); SL: 0.432 ± 0.017 (0.402-0.48); EL: 0.205 ± 0.012 (0.19-0.234); EW: 0.114 ± 0.007 (0.101-0.128); ML: 0.727 ± 0.043 (0.659-0.865); PSL: 0.147 ± 0.016 (0.123-0.201); SDL: 0.103 ± 0.01 (0.089-0.134); PL: 0.282 ± 0.02 (0.245-0.324); PPL: 0.203 ± 0.019 (0.179-0.246); PH: 0.207 ± 0.017 (0.179-0.246); PPH: 0.198 ± 0.013 (0.179-0.229); PNW: 0.387 ± 0.019 (0.358-0.441); TL: 0.432 ± 0.024 (0.391-0.491); TW: 0.089 ± 0.008 (0.078-0.101); PW: 0.159 ± 0.01 (0.145-0.179); PPW: 0.233 ± 0.013 (0.212-0.268); HI: 92.8 ± 2.1 (87.5-96.5); SI1: 67.9 ± 1.4 (64.8-70.9); EI: 55.7 ± 4.5 (48.9-67.4); SI2: 73.2 ± 1.7 (70.1-77.4); MI: 187.1 ± 5.3 (177.9-200.0); SPI: 142.6 ± 12.8 (114.3-175.3); PI1: 137.6 ± 14.3 (115.2-164.2); PI2: 41.6 ± 3.1 (36.1-46.6); PPI1: 103.6 ± 9.4 (91.7-129.5); PPI2: 60.5 ± 3.2 (54.7-66.7); HTI1: 72.9 ± 3.1 (67.9-82.9); HTI2: 20.6 ± 1.4 (17.4-23.3).

Head, thorax and abdomen from dark brown to brown. Antennal scapes pale brown, apex of the scapes and funiculus yellowish-brown. Femora pale brown, tibiae and tarsi yellowish brown.

Head rectangular, longer than wide, lateral surfaces below eyes straight, gently rounded on the posterior edges. Anterior margin of the clypeus straight or shallowly emarginated. Eyes elongate, strongly narrowing downward, reaching anteroventral margin of head, 0.3 times as long as length of the head. Scape short, 0.7 times as long as width of the head, at base 0.7 times as wide as in apex, gradually widened, slightly bent downward. Funiculus short, 1.5 times as long as scape, first segment elongate, triangular, 2.2 times as long as wide on apex, 5.5 times as long as second segment, length ratio of segments 100:18:27:27:27:32:36:63:72:172, apical segments 1.8 times as wide as basal segments. Surface of the scape with very fine microsculpture, shiny, covered with short and semierect to appressed pubescence.

Promesonotum 1.2 times as long as wide, flat in profile. Promesonotal suture distinct, the border between dorsal and posterior surfaces of the promesonotum smoothly curved in profile view. Propodeum quadrate, 0.9 times as long as wide, propodeal spines very short, triangular, the upper edge parallel to the dorsal surface of propodeum or rising obliquely upwards. Petiole rounded with short peduncle, its anterior face straight, node sharply rounded on dorsal surface in profile. Posterior face slightly convent. Ventral margin of petiole with lobe projection. Postpetiole regularly rounded in profile. Postpetiole 0.9 times as long as wide in dorsal view, regularly widened from base to top, apical half with gently rounded sides.

Mandibles rounded, with outer and dorsal edges straight and smooth, inner margin with 7-8 teeth, the apical tooth massive and long. Clypeus shiny, smooth to rugulose on entire surface. Frontal carinae short, extending to upper edge of antennal fossa; antennal fossa deeply impressed, microreticulate with striation, frontal lobes rugulose with thick longitudinal striae, shiny. Frons shiny, all surface with thick longitudinal striae and rugulose in central part to rugulose and finely striation near eyes. Area above eyes shiny with thick longitudinal striae and rugulose. Ventral surface of the head with distinct striation and fine rugulose to smooth, gena shiny with fine striation and microreticulation. Entire head bearing setae, posterior margin with sparse erect setae directed forward, lateral surfaces of the head with appressed to semierect setae directed toward anterior margin, frontal area with appressed to semierect setae placed transversely, directed to the center of the head, ventral surface of the head with a prominent psammophore and appressed to erect long setae. Pronotum shiny, rugose with longitudinal striae, lateral surfaces punctate with distinct longitudinal striae. Dorsal suface of pronotum rugose with sparse longitudinal or transverse striation, lateral surfaces punctate or rugose with longitudinal striae. Mesonotum rugose on the top with longitudinal or transverse striation, lateral surfaces punctate or rugose with longitudinal, thin striation, dorsal surface of propodeum punctate to rugose with longitudinal, thin striation, below spiracles punctate or rugose with longitudinal striae. Dorsal suface of mesosoma with at least five erect, long setae on anterior half, mesonotum and anterior propodeum with a few long, erect setae. Base of petiole and postpetiole punctate to rugulose on the entire surface, nodes punctate, shiny with sparse punctation or smooth on the top, covered with several setae. Gaster shiny with fine, sparse micropunctation, bearing dense, erect setae.

Legs short, hind femora 0.6 times as long as mesosoma length, hind tibia 0.9 times as long as hind femora, hind tarsi 1.6 times as long as hind femora. Dorsal surface of femora with long, sparse, semierect to appressed pubescence, inner margin with a row of the sparse, long, appressed pubescence, tibiae bearing long, semierect setae on the entire surface, inner margins with a row of semierect setae.

Queen

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - (n=8): HL: 0.774 ± 0.038 (0.737-0.838); HW: 0.749 ± 0.04 (0.715-0.812); SL: 0.489 ± 0.027 (0.436-0.525); EL: 0.242 ± 0.01 (0.223-0.256); EW: 0.154 ± 0.008 (0.145-0.188); ML: 1.291 ± 0.119 (1.123-1.421); MH: 0.72 ± 0.113 (0.536-0.846);PSL: 0.235; SDL: 0.19; PL: 0.454 ± 0.026 (0.435-0.491); PPL: 0.29 ± 0.03 (0.257-0.335); PH: 0.302 ± 0.022 (0.279-0.332); PPH: 0.311 ± 0.009 (0.302-0.324); PNW: 0.633 ± 0.025 (0.615-0.679); TL: 0.583 ± 0.02 (0.555-0.603); TW: 0.132 ± 0.009 (0.123-0.145); PW: 0.264 ± 0.02 (0.234-0.279); PPW: 0.394 ± 0.026 (0.358-0.413); HI: 96.8 ± 0.4 (95.9-97.0); SI1: 63.2 ± 2.3 (59.2-67.7); EI: 63.7 ± 3.8 (58.9-70.0); SI2: 65.3 ± 2.5 (61.0-70.2); MI: 201.2 ± 13.2 (182.6-211.6); SPI: 123.7; PI1: 150.4 ± 3.9 (147.3-155.9); PI2: 41.9 ± 0.8 (41.1-42.7); PPI1: 93.1 ± 7.6 (85.1-103.4); PPI2: 62.0 ± 1.2 (60.8-63.2); HTI1: 77.9 ± 3.2 (74.3-83.1); HTI2: 23.0 ± 0.8 (22.2-24.0).

Whole body brown, only mandibles partly reddish brown, Antennae reddish brown, antennal scapes reddish brown to yellowish brown on the apex, funiculus yellowish brown. Mandibles brow to reddish brown. Femora pale brown to reddish brown, tibiae and tarsi reddish brown to yellowish brown.

Head quadrate, longer than wide, lateral surfaces below eyes straight, slightly rounded on the posterior edges. Anterior margin of the clypeus softly convex. Eyes elongate, strongly narrowing downward, reaching anteroventral margin of head, 0.3 times as long as length of the head. Ocelli large. Scape short, 0.6 times as long as width of the head, at base 0.75 times as wide as in apex then gradually widened without preapical constriction. Funiculus short, 1.6 times as long as scape, first segment elongate, triangular, 1.8 times as long as wide on apex, 2.75 times as long as second segment, length ratio of segments 100:36:36:41:41:45:54:81:90:163, apical segments 1.8 times as wide as basal segments. Surface of the scape with very fine microsculpture, shiny, covered with long, dense, semierect setae.

Mesosoma 1.6 times as long as head, relatively high and robust, flat with rounded pronotal corners in profile. Scutum 0.9 times as wide as long, posterior margin regularly semicircular. Propodeum located considerably lower than mesosomal plate, propodeal spines short, triangular, rising obliquely upwards, top of spine sharp or blunt, directed downward. Petiole sharply rounded with short peduncle, its anterior face concave, node sharply rounded on dorsal surface, posterior face slightly concave or straight. Ventral margin of petiole with tooth-like lobe. Postpetiole regularly rounded in profile. Postpetiole 0.9 times as long as wide in dorsal view, regularly widened from base to top, apical half with gently rounded sides.

Mandibles rounded with distinct longitudinally striation, shiny, inner margin with 7-8 teeth, the apical tooth massive and long. Clypeus with longitudinal and transverse striation, shiny. Frontal carinae short, extending to 1/3 length of eye, antennal fossa deeply impressed, microreticulate with striation, frontal lobes rugulose with thick longitudinal striae, but shiny between rugosities. Frons shiny, all surface with thick longitudinal striae and rugulose. Area above eyes rugulose, shiny with or without longitudinal striae. Ventral surface of the head rugulose to rugulose with striation, gena shiny, with fine striation and microreticulation. Entire head bearing setae, posterior margin with sparse erect setae directed forward, lateral surfaces of the head with sparse semierect to erect setae directed toward anterior margin, frontal area with dense, appressed to semierect setae placed transversely, directed to the center of the head, ventral surface of the head with a prominent psammophore and appressed to erect long setae. Sides of the pronotum, anepisternum, katepisternum, metanepisternum and metakatepisternum finely rugulose with weak to strong longitudinal, dashed striation, shiny between striation. Scutum with dense longitudinal striae and smooth and shiny top. Scutellum with longitudinal striae, smooth to rugulose at the anterior and central part, shiny. Metanotum punctate and dull. Propodeum smooth with fine transverse and longitudinal striae in anterior half of lateral surfaces, with longitudinal striae and microreticulation. in posterior half of lateral surfaces, area between propodeal spines shiny and micropunctate. Dorsal suface of propodeum transversely and diffusely carinate, transversely reticulo-striate between and below the spines. Dorsal suface of mesosoma with dense, semierect to erect, long setae on anterior half, anterior propodeum with a few long setae. Base of petiole and postpetiole rugulose to punctate on the entire surface, nodes of the petiole punctate on the top and lateral surfaces, postpetiole node punctate, sparse punctation and fine striation on the top, shiny. Gaster shiny with sparse micropunctation, bearing dense, long, semierect to erect setae.

Legs short, hind femora 0.6 times as long as mesosoma length, hind tibia 0.8 times as long as hind femora, hind tarsi 1.2 times as long as hind femora. Dorsal surface of femora with long, dense, semierect setae, inner margin with a row of dense, long, semierect setae, tibiae bearing long, semierect setae on the entire surface, inner margins with a row of semierect setae.

Male

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - (n=3): HL: 0.594 ± 0.009 (0.581-0.603); HW: 0.548 ± 0.029 (0.52-0.589); SL: 0.406 ± 0.019 (0.38-0.425); EL: 0.234-0.235; EW: 0.162-0.168; ML: 1.496-1.57; MH: 0.911-1.009;PSL: 0.218-0.251; SDL: 0.19-0.201; PL: 0.38; PPL: 0.268; PH: 0.24; PPH: 0.24; PNW: 0.787 ± 0.016 (0.765-0.804); TL: 0.771-0.821; TW: 0.098-0.101; PW: 0.229 ± 0.02 (0.201-0.251); PPW: 0.335 ± 0.016 (0.318-0.357); HI: 92.4 ± 6.4 (87.0-101.4); SI1: 68.4 ± 3.9 (63.5-73.1); EI: 68.9-71.8; SI2: 75.1 ± 2.1 (72.1-77.1); MI: 195.3-195.6; SPI: 108.5-132.1; PI1: 158.3; PI2: 29.1 ± 2.9 (25.0-31.7); PPI1: 111.7; PPI2: 42.6 ± 2.3 (39.6-45.0); HTI1: 139.4-148.3; HTI2: 12.3-12.7.

Whole body uniformly brown. Antennal scapes brown to reddish brown at the apex, funiculus pale brown to reddish brown. Mandibles brown to reddish brown. Femora and tibiae pale brown, tarsi pale brown to yellowish brown.

Head oval, longer than wide, lateral surfaces below eyes straight, rounded on the posterior edges. Anterior margin of the clypeus straight with longitudinal striae. Eyes oval, 0.4 times as long as length of the head. Ocelli large. Scape short, 0.7 times as long as width of the head, at base 0.7 times as wide as in apex, straight. Funiculus short, 2.6 times as long as scape, first segment elongate, triangular, 2.0 times as long as wide on apex, 1.6 times as long as second segment, length ratio of segments 100:64:45:54:54:63:81:91:91:100:172, apical segments 1.2 times as wide as basal segments. Surface of the scape with very fine microsculpture, shiny, covered with long, dense, semierect to erect setae.

Mesosoma 2.5 times as long as head, relatively high and robust, very feeble convex with rounded pronotal corners in profile. Scutum 0.7 times as wide as long, posterior margin regularly semicircular. Propodeum located considerably lower than mesosomal plate, propodeal spines triangular, short with blunt top. Petiole rounded with long peduncle, its anterior face slightly concave, node sharply rounded with shallow cavity by having the central part and two small nodules at the outer edges, posterior face straight. Ventral margin of petiole straight without lobe. Postpetiole regularly rounded in profile. In dorsal view postpetiole regularly widened from base to top, apical half with gently rounded sides.

Mandibles elongate with longitudinal striae, shiny, inner margin with 4-5 teeth, the apical tooth massive and the longest. Clypeus rugulose but shiny. Frontal carinae curve outward to merge with the rugae surrounding antennal sockets; antennal fossa impressed, shiny with striation, frontal lobes rugulose with longitudinal striae, shiny between rugosities. Frons rugulose with longitudinal striae in central part to rugulose towards eyes, area above eyes and ventral surface of the head rugulose with transverse striation, gena rugulose with sparse longitudinal striae. Entire head bearing setae, posterior margin with dense, very long semierect to erect setae directed forward, lateral surfaces of the head with dense, long, semierect setae directed toward anterior margin, frontal area with dense, semierect to erect, long setae placed transversely, directed toward center of the head, ventral surface of the head with a prominent psammophore and appressed to erect long setae. Sides of the pronotum rugulose with thin longitudinal striae, anepisternum shiny with distinct longitudinal striae, katepisternum smooth to rugulose with distinct longitudinal striae, metanepisternum and metakatepisternum rugulose with distinct longitudinal striae. Scutum rugulose with distinct longitudinal striae except three longitudinal stripes located at the centre and outer edges of the scutum which are smooth with distinct to weak longitudinal striae. Central stripe wide, narrowing toward centre, reach only half of the length of the scutum. Scutellum slightly rugulose with longitudinal striae. Propodeum on lateral surfaces rugulose with striation, area between propodeal spines shiny and smooth. Dorsal suface of propodeum rugulose with transverse striation, punctate to smooth and shiny between and below the spines. Dorsal suface of mesosoma on anterior half with sparse, long, erect setae, anterior propodeum without setae. Base of petiole and postpetiole punctate on the entire surface, nodes of the petiole punctate on the top and lateral surfaces, postpetiole node punctate, punctate with slight longitudinal striae on the top, shiny. Gaster shiny with sparse micropunctation, bearing sparse, long, semierect to erect setae.

Legs short, hind femora 0.6 times as long as mesosoma length, hind tibia 0.8 times as long as hind femora, hind tarsi 1.4 times as long as hind femora. Dorsal surface of femora with sparse, long, appressed to semierect setae, inner margin with a row of the sparse, semierect setae, tibiae bearing long, semierect setae on the entire surface, inner margins with a row of semierect setae.

Type Material

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - Lectotype worker (left top corner of glue board) (present designation): Oxyopomyrmex Saulcyi Em n. st. SYNTYPUS Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi Emery, 1883 typus Banylus Leptothorax angustulus ANTWEB CASENT 0904146 (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa); 1 paralectotype worker: the same data as lectotype (MSNG); 4 gyne paralectotypes: Banylus TYPUS SYNTYPUS Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi Emery, 1883 (MSNG); 1 male paralectotype: Banylus Museo Civico Genova SYNTYPUS Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi Emery, 1883 (MSNG).

References