Pachycondyla inca

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Pachycondyla inca
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Pachycondyla
Species: P. inca
Binomial name
Pachycondyla inca
Emery, 1901

Pachycondyla inca casent0903888 p 1 high.jpg

Pachycondyla inca casent0903888 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

Little is known about the biology of this species.

Identification

From Mackay and Mackay (2010): The worker and female of P. inca are nearly identical to those of Pachycondyla impressa, differing only in having a longer clypeus. The shape of the clypeus of P. inca is very similar to that of Pachycondyla purpurascens. The two species can be separated as the mandible of P. purpurascens has definite striae; the surface of the mandible of P. inca is smooth. The two species are poorly known and when more material becomes available it is possible that P. inca will be shown to be a synonym of P. purpurascens.

The male of P. inca is similar to that of Pachycondyla striata, but can easily be separated by the lack of erect and suberect hairs on the anterior tibia. Additionally the petiole is narrower with a sharper apex. The male of P. purpurascens is unknown. Emery recognized the similarity of this species to P. purpurascens, as the female paralectotype was labeled as a variety of P. purpurascens and he compared this taxon to P. purpurascens in the description. Two workers of P. purpurascens were found in his collection.

Pachycondyla fuscoatra var. cearensis is identical with the worker lectotype of P. fuscoatra inca differing only in having the mandibles less striate, having a slightly more emarginate medial border of the clypeus and in having fewer erect hairs on the side of the head.

Distribution

Peru, Brazil, Bolivia (Mackay and Mackay 2010)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Peru (type locality).

Check distribution from AntMaps.

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Pachycondyla inca for further details

Habitat

Unknown. A dealate female was collected at 1525 meters (Wheeler, 1925) and specimens were collected at 1600m in Perú [[[USNM|National Museum of Natural History]]]. (Mackay and Mackay 2010)

Biology

From Mackay and Mackay (2010): Unknown. Workers [[[USNM|National Museum of Natural History]]] were collected from July and August and December in Bolivia. A dealate female was collected in May (Perú), [[[USNM|National Museum of Natural History]]].

Castes

Worker

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • cearensis. Pachycondyla fuscoatra var. cearensis Forel, 1901e: 336 (w.q.) BRAZIL. Junior synonym of impressa: Kempf, 1961c: 195; of inca: Mackay & Mackay, 2010: 400.
  • inca. Pachycondyla fuscoatra subsp. inca Emery, 1901a: 48 (w.q.) PERU. Junior synonym of impressa: Kempf, 1961c: 195. Revived from synonymy and raised to species: Mackay & Mackay, 2010: 400. Senior synonym of cearensis: Mackay & Mackay, 2010: 400.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

From Mackay and Mackay (2010): The worker is a large (total length 16 mm) dark reddish brown specimen with reddish brown appendages. The mandible has approximately 9 - 10 poorly defined teeth. Most of the anterior margin of the clypeus is straight or slightly concave medially. The region anterior to the frontal lobes is approximately 0.2 mm in length. The head length is 3.1 mm; the head width is 2.8 mm. The head is narrowed both anteriorly and posteriorly to the eyes, the posterior margin is concave and the posterior lateral corners are angulate. The eyes are relatively small (maximum diameter 0.55 mm) located approximately one diameter from the anterior margin of the head (side view). The malar carina is absent. The scape (2.75 mm) extends approximately the first funicular segment past the posterior lateral corner of the head. The pronotal shoulder is slightly swollen, but does not form a carina. The promesonotal suture is well developed and depressed and the metanotal suture is barely visible. The propodeal spiracle is slit-shaped. The petiolar node is nearly rectangular with the anterior and posterior faces being almost parallel and a well-developed dorsal face is present. The subpetiolar process consists of a thickened lobe with a slight ventral angle anteriorly. The anterior face of the postpetiole is nearly vertical and abruptly rounds into the dorsal face. The stridulatory file is absent on the second pretergite, as are the arolia between the tarsal claws.

Erect hairs are abundant on most surfaces, including all surfaces of the head, mesosoma, petiole and gaster, most hairs on the legs are suberect, especially those on the tibiae. Appressed pubescence is sparse and present on the dorsum of the head, dorsum of the mesosoma and dorsum and ventral surfaces of the gaster.

The mandibles are smooth and glossy near the bases, with striae and scattered punctures on most of the remainder of the surface. Most of the head is punctate with punctures being arranged in poorly defined rows; fine concentric striae are present on the dorsum of the pronotum, longitudinal on the mesonotum and mostly transverse on the dorsal face of the propodeum. The fine striae on the side of the pronotum are nearly vertical, those on the mesopleuron and the side of the propodeum are obliquely elevated posteriorly. The dorsum of the petiole has transverse fine striae; the sides have poorly defined horizontal striae. The gaster is punctate, but also with transverse very fine striae. All surfaces except for the mandibles and the legs are dull.

Queen

From Mackay and Mackay (2010): The female is a large (total length 18 mm) dark reddish brown specimen with reddish brown legs. The mandible has 9 teeth, the anterior medial margin of the clypeus is concave. The head length is 3.6 mm; the head width is 3.26 mm. The sides of the head are slightly narrowed anteriorly and posteriorly of the eye, the posterior margin is strongly concave. The eye is relatively small (maximum diameter 0.75 mm) located less than one diameter from the anterior margin of the head (side view). The malar carina is absent. The scape (3.1 mm) extends the first funicular segment past the posterior lateral corner of the head. The pronotal shoulder is swollen but does not form a carina, the propodeal spiracle is slit-shaped. The petiole, subpetiolar process and postpetiole are similar to those of the worker.

The pilosity and sculpture are similar to those of the worker.

Male

From Mackay and Mackay (2010): The male (undescribed) is a relatively large (total length 12 mm) dark reddish black specimen with dark brown legs. The depressions are well-developed at the base of the mandible, the anterior margin of the clypeus is straight, the clypeus is swollen when viewed from the side. The head length is 1.8 mm; the head width is 1.65 mm. The eye is moderate in size (maximum diameter as seen in lateral view 0.85 mm) located less than ½ diameter from the anterior margin of the head and is slightly less than one diameter from the lateral ocellus (frontal view).

The ocelli are relatively small (maximum diameter of the median ocellus is 0.18 mm) located more than one diameter from the lateral ocellus. The pronotal shoulder is swollen but does not form a carina, the propodeal spiracle is slit-shaped. The petiole is nearly triangular-shaped with the anterior and posterior faces meeting in a bluntly rounded apex near the posterior edge, the dorsal face is not developed. The subpetiolar process is poorly developed.

Erect hairs are abundant on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the head, absent on the scape, present posterior to the eyes and on the posterior margin of the head, abundant on the dorsum of the mesosoma, dorsum of the petiole, on the subpetiolar process and all surfaces of the gaster, erect hairs are present on the coxae, but are absent on the remainder of the legs. Appressed pubescence is present on the mesosoma, petiole and all surfaces of the gaster.

All of the surfaces are finely punctate and weakly shining.

Type Material

Perú, Ocobamba: Bolivia; Brasil, Ceará, Baturité. Lectotype and paralectotype female designated, 1 additional syntype from Bolivia, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa, 1 syntype seen, Museum of Comparative Zoology; lectotype worker, 2 paralectotype workers seen, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève, 1 syntype seen Museum of Comparative Zoology (Mackay and Mackay 2010)

Etymology

The name is meant to honor the Inca Indians, who inhabit much of the region where these ants occur. (Mackay and Mackay 2010)

References

  • Emery, C. 1901a. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponerines (Famille des Formicides). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique 45:32-54.
  • Mackay, W. P., and E. E. Mackay 2010. The Systematics and Biology of the New World Ants of the Genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Edwin Mellon Press, Lewiston. Information from this publication is used with permission from the authors.