Paraparatrechina

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Paraparatrechina
Paraparatrechina glabra
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Lasiini
Genus: Paraparatrechina
Donisthorpe, 1947
Type species
Paratrechina (Paraparatrechina) pallida, now Paraparatrechina pallida
Diversity
42 species
(Species Checklist)

Paratrechina glabra casent0067057 profile 1.jpg

Paraparatrechina glabra

Paratrechina glabra casent0067057 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Evolutionary Relationships
Formicinae

Myrmelachistini
  (2 genera)




Lasiini

Cladomyrma
  (13 species)





Lasius
  (120 species)



Myrmecocystus
  (30 species)






Paraparatrechina
  (42 species)




Prenolepis
  (13 species)



Zatania
  (6 species)






Nylanderia
  (135 species)




Pseudolasius
  (65 species)




Euprenolepis
  (8 species)



Paratrechina
  (6 species)











Melophorini
  (9 genera)




Formicini
  (8 genera)





Gesomyrmex, Oecophylla



Plagiolepidini
  (10 genera)





Gigantiops, Myrmoteras, Santschiella



Camponotini
  (8 genera)








Based on Ward et al. 2016.

Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - Paraparatrechina is restricted to the tropics of Africa, Asia and Australia (LaPolla et al., 2010a). The Afrotropical species can be found in rainforests and forest clearings, in the leaf litter or in rotten logs, and some species presumably live in the vegetation or the canopy (LaPolla et al., 2010b). Paraparatrechina are generalistic feeders and often live in trophobiotic relationships with hemipterans (LaPolla et al., 2010a).

Identification

The mesosomal setal pattern of these ants (two pairs of pronotal erect setae; one pair of mesonotal erect setae and one pair of propodeal erect setae) is remarkably uniform across the genus. These are generally small ants (the majority of species are just over 1 mm to just under 2 mm in total length) that, except for a few known species, have a compact mesosoma. In at least three species a more elongated, slender mesosoma is noted: Paraparatrechina pallida and two undescribed Afrotropical species (LaPolla et al., in preparation). In these species the general form of the mesosoma roughly resembles that of Paratrechina longicornis: elongate and slender with a propodeum not angular with a short dorsal face, but instead with a dorsal face that is rounded and broad. In every other diagnostic morphological character, however, the species conform to the morphology given below for Paraparatrechina. (LaPolla et al. 2010)

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Paleotropics of Africa, Asia and Australia

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Paraparatrechina Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Paraparatrechina Species Richness.png

Biology

Castes

Two polymorphic species from the Afrotropics, Paraparatrechina weissi and Paraparatrechina bufona, superficially resemble Pseudolasius. A major worker caste is clearly expressed in these species and they possess many morphological features that suggest a hypogaeic lifestyle. Presently, they represent the only known cases of worker polymorphism within Paraparatrechina.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • PARAPARATRECHINA [Formicinae: Plagiolepidini]
    • Paraparatrechina Donisthorpe, 1947d: 192 [as subgenus of Paratrechina]. Type-species: Paratrechina (Paraparatrechina) pallida, by monotypy.
    • Paraparatrechina junior synonym of Paratrechina: Trager, 1984b: 58.
    • Paraparatrechina revived from synonymy and raised to genus: LaPolla, Brady & Shattuck, 2010a: 128.

Description

Mandible with 5 teeth; maxillary palps 6-segmented; labial palps 4-segmented; erect setae on dorsum of head distinctly paired; erect setae on head form a pattern of four setae along posterior margin and six to seven rows of paired setae from posterior margin to clypeal margin; scapes and legs lack erect setae; head (excluding clypeal surface) and mesonotal dorsum covered in dense pubesence. Eyes typically well developed and placed midlength towards midline and laterally on head. Erect mesosomal setae distinctly paired, with two pairs on pronotum, one pair on mesonotum and one pair on propodeum; propodeum typically with short dorsal face compared to longer posterior face; generally overall mesosoma shape compact, although in a few species the mesosoma is elongated. (LaPolla et al. 2010)

References

  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 104, Paraparatrechina as junior synonym of Paratrechina)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. (page 183, Paraparatrechina as junior synonym of Paratrechina (provisional_)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1947e. Some new ants from New Guinea. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(14): 183-197 (page 192, Paraparatrechina as subgenus of Paratrechina; Paraparatrechina in Acanthomyropsini)
  • LaPolla, J. S., S. G. Brady, and S. O. Shattuck. 2010. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Prenolepis genus-group of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology. 35:118-131.
  • Trager, J. C. 1984b. A revision of the genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the continental United States. Sociobiology 9: 49-162 (page 58, Paraparatrechina as junior synonym of Paratrechina)