Pheidole

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Pheidole
Pheidole aberrans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Pheidole
Westwood, 1839
Type species
Atta providens, now Pheidole providens
Diversity
1,139 species
5 fossil species
(Species Checklist)

Pheidole aberrans casent0178005 profile 1.jpg

Pheidole aberrans

Pheidole aberrans casent0178005 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

A hyperdiverse genus of ants that are distinguished by their discrete major and minor workers. While there are other genera with discrete worker castes, none have radiated to the extent of Pheidole. Ants in this genus are most diverse and abundant in the Neotropics but they are also abundant elements of the ant faunas in many other areas of the world. Wilson's (2003) treatment of the New World species and other more recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have brought some much needed clarity to defining the boundaries of many species. Still, much work remains before it can be claimed that the genus Pheidole has few new species to be described and that the taxonomy of the group is definitively complete.

Identification

Pheidole Working Group - Characters

Pheidole Working Group - Keys

Pheidole Working Group - Participants

Pheidole Working Group - Taxonomic Catalogue

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Subgenera or Species Groups in this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Pheidole Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Pheidole Species Richness.png

Regional Treatments

Biology

Pheidole are general scavengers, feeding on a wide range of prey. Here, a worker of an Australian species returns to its nest with an amphipod while another Australian species returns with a dead Camponotus worker.

Shattuck 10299-web, Pheidole with prey, Canberra.jpg Shattuck C13066-web, ANIC32-030605, Pheidole, n. Cairns, Queensland.jpg

Major workers are much less common than minor workers, commonly being out-numbered by 10-to-one or more.

Pheidole Shattuck 54487 Danum Valley Sabah-web.jpg Shattuck C17899-web, ANIC32-030608, Pheidole, Cairns, Queensland.jpg

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • PHEIDOLE [Myrmicinae: Pheidolini]
    • Pheidole Westwood, 1839: 219. Type-species: Atta providens, by monotypy.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Oecophthora: Smith, F. 1858a: 282; Smith, F. 1858b: 172.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Leptomyrma: Emery, 1892b: 166.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Allopheidole, Cardiopheidole: Emery, 1921f: 84.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Phidole: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 806.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Macropheidole: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 800.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Epipheidole: Cole, 1965: 174.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardomyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalomorium), Ischnomyrmex (and its junior synonym Isopheidole), Parapheidole, Pheidolacanthinus, Phidola, Scrobopheidole, Stegopheidole, Sympheidole, Trachypheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365-1366; Snelling, R.R. 1981: 395.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma: Wilson, 1984: 327.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Xenoaphaenogaster: Bolton, 1987: 291.
  • ALLOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Allopheidole Forel, 1912f: 237 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole kingi (junior synonym of Pheidole tepicana), by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 79.
    • Allopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Emery, 1921f: 84.
  • ANERGATIDES [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Anergatides Wasmann, 1915b: 281. Type-species: Anergatides kohli (junior secondary homonym in Pheidole, replaced by Pheidole neokohli), by monotypy.
    • Anergatides junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 328.
  • ANISOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Anisopheidole Forel, 1914c: 616 (footnote) [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole froggatti (junior synonym of Atta antipodum), by monotypy.
    • [Anisopheidole also described as new by Forel, 1915b: 61.]
    • Anisopheidole raised to genus: Ettershank, 1966: 129.
    • Anisopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • BRUCHOMYRMA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Bruchomyrma Santschi, 1922d: 248. Type-species: Bruchomyrma acutidens, by monotypy.
    • Bruchomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 327.
    • [Bruchomyrma listed as genus: Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 80 (anachronism)].
    • Bruchomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Bolton, 1994: 106; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • CARDIOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Cardiopheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1914b: 48 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole vaslitii, by original designation.
    • Cardiopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Emery, 1921f: 84.
  • CEPHALOMORIUM [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Cephalomorium Forel, 1922: 91 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Cephalomorium) bahai, by monotypy.
    • Cephalomorium junior synonym of Hendecapheidole: Santschi, 1925d: 228.
    • Cephalomorium junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6].
  • CERATOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Ceratopheidole Pergande, 1896: 889 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole (Ceratopheidole) granulata, by monotypy.
    • Ceratopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • CONOTHORACOIDES [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Conothoracoides Strand, 1935: 176. Replacement name for Conothorax Karavaiev, 1935a: 75. [Junior homonym of Conothorax Jekel, 1854: 9 bis (foldout pages) (Coleoptera).]
    • Conothoracoides junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • DECAPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Decapheidole Forel, 1912f: 237 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole perpusilla, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 80.
    • Decapheidole raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 661; Borgmeier, 1927c: 78.
    • Decapheidole subgenus of Pheidole: Emery, 1922e: 112; Kempf, 1972a: 183.
    • Decapheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • ELASMOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Elasmopheidole Forel, 1913k: 43 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole aberrans, by subsequent designation of Emery, 1915i: 190.
    • Elasmopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • ELECTROPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Electropheidole Mann, 1921: 438 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole (Electropheidole) roosevelti, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1943f: 642.
    • Electropheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • EPIPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Epipheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1903f: 664. Type-species: Epipheidole inquilina, by monotypy.
    • [Epipheidole also described as new by Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 14.]
    • Epipheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Cole, 1965: 174.
  • ERIOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Eriopheidole Kusnezov, 1952a: 10. Type-species: Eriopheidole symbiotica (junior secondary homonym in Pheidole, replaced by Pheidole kusnezovi), by monotypy.
    • Eriopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Bolton, 1994: 106.
  • GALLARDOMYRMA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Gallardomyrma Bruch, 1932: 271. Type-species: Gallardomyrma argentina, by original designation.
    • Gallardomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 327.
    • [Gallardomyrma listed as genus: Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 80 (anachronism)].
    • Gallardomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Bolton, 1994: 106; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • HENDECAPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Hendecapheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1922d: 3 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole tachigaliae, by original designation.
    • Hendecapheidole senior synonym of Cephalomorium: Santschi, 1925d: 228.
    • Hendecapheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • ISCHNOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Ischnomyrmex Mayr, 1862: 738. Type-species: Myrmica longipes, by monotypy.
    • Ischnomyrmex junior synonym of Aphaenogaster: Emery & Forel, 1879: 461; Bingham, 1903: 270.
    • Ischnomyrmex subgenus of Aphaenogaster: Forel, 1891b: 166; André, 1893b: 150; Dalla Torre, 1893: 98; Forel, 1899c: 59; Emery, 1908c: 313; Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 140.
    • Ischnomyrmex subgenus of Stenamma: Emery, 1895c: 298; Emery, 1895j: 769; Forel, 1903a: 693.
    • Ischnomyrmex subgenus of Pheidole: Forel, 1913k: 49.
    • Ischnomyrmex as genus: Stitz, 1911a: 367; Emery, 1914a: 40; Forel, 1917: 241; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 661; Emery, 1922e: 113.
    • Ischnomyrmex senior synonym of Isopheidole: Forel, 1913k: 49; Emery, 1922e: 113 [both have the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute].
    • Ischnomyrmex junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365.
  • ISOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Isopheidole Forel, 1912m: 765 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Myrmica longipes, by monotypy.
    • Isopheidole junior synonym of Ischnomyrmex: Forel, 1913k: 49 [both have the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute].
    • Isopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365.
  • LEPTOMYRMA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Leptomyrma Motschoulsky, 1863: 17. Type-species: Leptomyrma gracilipes, by monotypy.
    • Leptomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Emery, 1892b: 166.
  • MACHOMYRMA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Machomyrma Forel, 1895f: 425 [as subgenus of Liomyrmex]. Type-species: Liomyrmex (Machomyrma) dispar, by monotypy.
    • Machomyrma raised to genus: Emery, 1896e: 184.
    • Machomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • MACROPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Macropheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole fimbriata, by monotypy.
    • Macropheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 800; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • OECOPHTHORA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Oecophthora Heer, 1852: 15. Type-species: Oecophthora pusilla (junior synonym of Formica megacephala), by monotypy.
    • Oecophthora junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, F. 1858a: 282; Smith, F. 1858b: 172.
  • PARAPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Parapheidole Emery, 1915d: 68. Type-species: Aphaenogaster oculata, by monotypy.
    • Parapheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • PHEIDOLACANTHINUS [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Pheidolacanthinus Smith, F. 1865: 75. Type-species: Pheidolacanthinus armatus (junior synonym of Myrmica quadrispinosa), by monotypy.
    • Pheidolacanthinus subgenus of Pheidole: Forel, 1900a: 25.
    • Pheidolacanthinus junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365.
  • PHIDOLA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Phidola Schulz, W.A. 1906: 155, unjustified emendation of Pheidole.
    • Phidola junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365.
  • PHIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Phidole Bingham, 1903: 220, unjustified emendation of Pheidole.
    • Phidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Wheeler, 1922a: 806.
  • SCROBOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Scrobopheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole scrobifera, by monotypy.
    • Scrobopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • STEGOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Stegopheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole (Elasmopheidole) upeneci, by monotypy.
    • Stegopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • SYMPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Sympheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 7. Type-species: Sympheidole elecebra, by monotypy.
    • Sympheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • TRACHYPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Trachypheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole bicornis, by original designation.
    • Trachypheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • XENOAPHAENOGASTER [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Xenoaphaenogaster Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 50. Type-species: Xenoaphaenogaster inquilina (junior synonym of Myrmica pallidula), by original designation.
    • Xenoaphaenogaster junior synonym of Pheidole: Bolton, 1987: 291.

Etymology

Greek pheidolos = thrifty

References

  • Arnold, G. 1920a. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part IV. Myrmicinae. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 14: 403-578 (page 414, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Bolton, B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 54: 263-452 (page 291, Pheidole senior synonym of Xenoaphaenogaster)
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 106, Pheidole senior synonym of Phidola.)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 232, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. (page 178-185, Pheidole provisional senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardommyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalmorium), Isc)
  • Cole, A. C., Jr. 1965. Discovery of the worker caste of Pheidole (P.) inquilina, new combination (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58: 173-175 (page 174, Pheidole senior synonym of Epipheidole)
  • Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc., Suppl. Vol. 1887: 1-351 (page 262, Pheidole in Myrmicidae)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 88, Pheidole in Myrmicinae)
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Pheidole in Myrmicidae, Pheidolidae)
  • Emery, C. 1892c [1891]. Note sinonimiche sulle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 159-167 (page 166, Pheidole senior synonym of Leptomyrma.)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 769, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 40, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
  • Emery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7 (page 84, Pheidole senior synonym of Allopheidole and Cardiopheidole)
  • Emery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7 (page 77, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 463, Pheidole in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Forel, A. 1893b. Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 165, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
  • Forel, A. 1895b. A fauna das formigas do Brazil. Bol. Mus. Para. Hist. Nat. Ethnogr. 1: 89-139 (page 127, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Forel, A. 1899e. Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 57-80 (page 64, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 241, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
  • Gregg, R. E. 1959 [1958]. Key to the species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the United States. J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 66: 7-48 (page 9, Key to North American species)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da regia~o Neotropical. Stud. Entomol. 15: 3-344 (page 183, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini (anachronism))
  • Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 69, Pheidole in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 22, Pheidole in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. (page 1365, Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardomyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalomorium), Ischnomyrmex (a)
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 172, Pheidole in Poneridae)
  • Smith, F. 1858b. Revision of an essay on the British Formicidae published in the Transactions of the Society. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (2) 4: 274-284 (page 282, Pheidole senior synonym of Oecophthora.)
  • Smith, F. 1860a. Descriptions of new species of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace at Celebes. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 5(17b)(suppl. to vol. 4 4: 57-93 (page 74, Pheidole in Attidae)
  • Smith, F. 1862a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the islands of Ceram, Celebes, Ternate, and Gilolo. [concl.]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 6: 49-66 (page 49, Pheidole in Attidae)
  • Smith, F. 1871a. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and the Eastern Archipelago. With introductory remarks by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 11: 285-348 (page 331, Pheidole in Myrmicidae)
  • Smith, M. R. 1951c. Family Formicidae. Pp. 778-875 in: Muesebeck, C. F., Krombein, K. V., Townes, H. K. (eds.) Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue. U. S. Dep. Agric. Agric. Monogr. 2:1-1420. (page 800, Pheidole senior synonym of Macropheidole)
  • Snelling, R. R. 1981. Systematics of social Hymenoptera. Pp. 369-453 in: Hermann, H. R. (ed.) Social insects. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press, xiii + 491 pp. (page 395, Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardomyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalomorium), Ischnomyrmex (a)
  • Westwood, J. O. 1839a. An introduction to the modern classification of insects; founded on the natural habits and corresponding organisation of the different families. Volume 2. Part XI. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans, pp. 193-224. (page 219, Pheidole as genus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 139, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 661, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922j. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VIII. A synonymic list of the ants of the Ethiopian region. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 711-1004 (page 806, Pheidole senior synonym of Phidole.)
  • Wilson, E. O. 1984b. Tropical social parasites in the ant genus Pheidole, with an analysis of the anatomical parasitic syndrome (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insectes Soc. 31: 316-334 (page 327, Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides and Bruchomyrma)
  • Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.