Pheidole symbiotica

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Pheidole symbiotica
Scientific classification (junior synonym of Pheidole pallidula)
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Pheidole
Species: Pheidole symbiotica
Wasmann, 1909

This taxon is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Pheidole pallidula.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • symbiotica. Pheidole symbiotica Wasmann, 1909: 693 (footnote), figs. 1, 2 (w.) PORTUGAL. Wasmann, 1910: 515 (q.m.). Junior synonym of pallidula: Forel, 1913d: 430. Revived from synonymy as subspecies of pallidula: Emery, 1915j: 226. Revived status as species: Collingwood, 1978: 68. Junior synonym of pallidula: Borowiec & Salata, 2015: 183.


  • Borowiec, L. & Salata, S. 2015. Pheidole symbiotica Wasmann, 1909, an enigmatic supposed social parasite, is a nematode infested form of Pheidole pallidula (Nylander, 1849) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Sociobiology, 62, 181-186 (DOI: 10.13102/sociobiology.v62i2.181-186).
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1978. A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste (Hym. Aculeata). EOS. Rev. Esp. Entomol. 52: 65-95 (page 68, revived status as species)
  • Emery, C. 1915i. Les Pheidole du groupe megacephala (Formicidae). Rev. Zool. Afr. (Bruss.) 4: 223-250 (page 226, revived from synonymy as variety of pallidula)
  • Forel, A. 1913d. Fourmis de la faune méditerranéenne récoltées par MM. U. et J. Sahlberg. Rev. Suisse Zool. 21: 427-438 (page 430, junior synonym of pallidula)
  • Kusnezov, N. 1952d [1951]. El género Pheidole en la Argentina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Acta Zool. Lilloana 12: 5-88 (page 16, figs. 1-9 queen, male described)
  • Wasmann, E. 1909d. Über den Ursprung des sozialen Parasitismus, der Sklaverei und der Myrmekophilie bei den Ameisen. (Schluss.). Biol. Centralbl. 29: 683-703 (page 693, figs. 1, 2 worker described)
  • Wasmann, E. 1910. Nachträge zum sozialen Parasitismus und der Sklaverei bei den Ameisen. [part]. Biol. Centralbl. 30: 515-524 (page 515, queen, male described)
  • Wilson, E. O. 1984b. Tropical social parasites in the ant genus Pheidole, with an analysis of the anatomical parasitic syndrome (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insectes Soc. 31: 316-334 (page 328, Combination in Pheidole [Unresolved junior secondary homonym of Pheidole symbiotica Wasmann, 1909])