Phylogeny of Formicidae

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Relationships among ant subfamilies (extant taxa only) based on M. L. Borowiec et al. [1].

It should be noted that the details of these relationships are in a state of flux as we explore the analytical methods used to interpret the ever-increasing amount of genomic data becoming available as DNA sequencing methods explode. For earlier estimates of the relationships among ant subfamilies see Brady et al. 2006[2], Moreau et al. 2006[3], Ward 2007[4], Rabeling et al. 2008[5], Moreau 2009[6], Brady et al. 2014[7] and Ward & Fisher, 2016[8], or the history of this page.






Ponerinae - see relationships



Dorylinae - see relationships


Dolichoderinae - see relationships

Myrmeciinae - see relationships within Myrmecia

Pseudomyrmecinae - see relationships

Formicinae - see relationships





  1. bioRxiv 173393 [Preprint]. 8 August 2017.
  2. Brady, S.G., Fisher, B.L., Schultz, T.R. & Ward, P.S. (2006) Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U. S. A., 103, 18172–18177.
  3. Moreau, C.S., Bell, C.D., Vila, R., Archibald, S.B. & Pierce. N.E. (2006) Phylogeny of the ants: diversification in the age of angiosperms. Science (Washington D. C.), 312, 101–104.
  4. Ward, P.S. 2007. Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa, 1668, 549–563.
  5. Rabeling, C., Brown, J.M., Verhaagh, M. (2008) Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U. S. A., 105, 14913–14917.
  6. Moreau, C.S. 2009. Inferring ant evolution in the age of molecular data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 12, 201-210.
  7. Brady, S. G.; Fisher, B. L.; Schultz, T. R.; Ward, P. S. 2014. The rise of army ants and their relatives: diversification of specialized predatory doryline ants. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014 14:93, 14 pp. (doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-93).
  8. Ward, P.S. & Fisher, B.L. 2016. Tales of dracula ants: the evolutionary history of the ant subfamily Amblyoponinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology, 41, 683–693 (DOI: 10.1111/syen.12186).