Polyrhachis euryala

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Polyrhachis euryala
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Polyrhachis
Subgenus: Cyrtomyrma
Species: P. euryala
Binomial name
Polyrhachis euryala
Smith, F., 1863

Polyrhachis euryala casent0217792 p 1 high.jpg

Polyrhachis euryala casent0217792 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Subspecies
Synonyms

Donisthorpe (1941) in his account of the synonymous rastellata var. baduri: "Miss L. E. Cheesman took a number of workers and three winged females in a carton nest under leaves of Pandanus." Nothing more is known about the biology of Polyrhachis euryala.

Identification

Donisthorpe (1938) - Polyrhachis euryala is distinctly more slender than Polyrhachis rastellata with the greatest width of the pronotal dorsum in the middle of its length. Polyrhachis rastellata is more robust, notably across the pronotum which is widest across, or just behind the shoulders.

Kohout (2008) - When describing Polyrhachis pagana, Santschi compared his new variety to Polyrhachis euryala and Polyrhachis rastellata. He noted that it differed from P. euryala by having the dorsal petiolar spines longer and finer than the lateral pair, and from P. rastellata by its black appendages. Besides the characters listed above, P. euryala differs from both other species by its distinctly slender mesosoma with the greatest width of the pronotal dorsum at its mid-length. In contrast, both Polyrhachis rastellata and P. pagana feature a more robust pronotal dorsum which is widest across or just behind the shoulders. The two latter species differ mainly by the colour of their legs that are mostly light to medium-red or orange in P. rastellata and black in P. pagana. In addition, the mesosomal profile in P. rastellata is distinctly uneven, with a rather flat or shallowly impressed summit at the promesonotal suture and a weak depression indicating the relative position of the indistinct metanotal groove. In contrast, the mesosoma in P. pagana is almost evenly rounded (more like that in P. euryala), with only a slight change in the angle of the profile at the steeply descending propodeal declivity.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Patchily distributed through the eastern islands of Indonesia and across New Guinea.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Indonesia (type locality), New Guinea.

Check distribution from AntMaps.

Distribution based on specimens

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The above specimen data are provided by AntWeb. Please see Polyrhachis euryala for further details

Biology

Castes

Worker

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • euryala. Polyrhachis euryalus Smith, F. 1863: 16 (w.) INDONESIA (Misool I.). Combination in P. (Cyrtomyrma): Emery, 1925b: 208. Junior synonym of rastellata: Mayr, 1872: 138; Bingham, 1903: 414. Revived from synonymy as subspecies of rastellata: Emery, 1900d: 720; Emery, 1925b: 208. Revived status as species: Donisthorpe, 1938c: 259; Dorow, 1995: 22. Senior synonym of torricelliana: Viehmeyer, 1914b: 50; Kohout, 2009b: 44; of baduri: Kohout, 2009b: 44. See also: Kohout, 2006b: 125. Current subspecies: nominal plus javana.
  • torricelliana. Polyrhachis rastellata var. torricelliana Viehmeyer, 1912: 9, fig. 11 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Junior synonym of euryala: Viehmeyer, 1914b: 50.
  • baduri. Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) rastellata var. baduri Donisthorpe, 1941h: 63 (w.q.) NEW GUINEA. Junior synonym of euryala: Kohout, 2009b: 45.

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

Polyrhachis euryalus

Holotype worker in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “M.” (= Misool I.) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Length 2 ½ lines. Black, smooth and shining; the thorax rounded above, not spined; the outline, when viewed laterally, semicircular; the legs obscure ferruginous. Abdomen globose; the node of the peduncle with four spines, the two inner ones shorter than the lateral pair, but all short and acute.

Queen

Colour and sculpture as in worker. The scale is broader and the punctures on thorax and petiole a little coarser. Wings yellowish, pterostigma and veins yellowish-brown. Long. 7·0-7·5 mill. (Donisthorpe 1941)

Type Material

INDONESIA, Mysool Island, col. A.R. Wallace. Syntype workers Oxford University Museum of Natural History and The Natural History Museum – as reported by Kohout (2006).

Donisthorpe (1941) types of the synonymous rastellata var. baduri: JAPEN ISLAND: Mt. Baduri, 1000 ft., viii.1938, col. L. E. Cheesman. The Natural History Museum

References

  • Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. (page 414, Junior synonym of rastellata)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1938c. The subgenus Cyrtomyrma Forel of Polyrhachis Smith, and descriptions of new species, etc. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(1): 246-267 (page 259, Revived status as species)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1941h. The ants of Japen Island, Dutch New Guinea (Hym., Formicidae). Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 91: 51-64.
  • Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Cour. Forschungsinst. Senckenb. 185: 1-113 (page 22, Revived status as species)
  • Emery, C. 1900d. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. [part]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 40[=(2(20): 689-720 (page 720, Revived from synonymy as subspecies of rastellata)
  • Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 208, Combination in P. (Cyrtomyrma), Revived from synonymy as subspecies of rastellata)
  • Kohout, R. J. 2006. Review of Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) of Australia, Borneo, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands with descriptions of new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 52:87-146.
  • Mayr, G. 1872. Formicidae Borneenses collectae a J. Doria et O. Beccari in territorio Sarawak annis 1865-1867. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 2: 133-155 (page 138, Junior synonym of rastellata)
  • Smith, F. 1863a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the islands of Mysol, Ceram, Waigiou, Bouru and Timor. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 7: 6-48 (page 16, worker described)
  • Viehmeyer, H. 1914b [1913]. Neue und unvollständig bekannte Ameisen der alten Welt. Arch. Naturgesch. (A)79(1 12: 24-60 (page 50, Senior synonym of torricelliana)