| Ponera pianmana|
Xu, Z., 2001
The type material was collected from a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest.
This new species is close to Ponera japonica, but lateral sides of head more straight, only weakly convex; posterodorsal corner of propodeum more prominent, bluntly angled; in dorsal view petiolar node more broader, in profile view the node with anterodorsal corner higher than posterodorsal one. (Xu 2001)
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Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
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The general biology of species in the genus was summarized by Taylor (1967): Ponera are small ants that nest in rotting logs in forested areas or under stones in nonforested situations. In the tropical areas specimens are rarely encountered away from rain forest. In temperate areas, however, species may occur in relatively lightly forested areas. This appears to be the case with Ponera japonica, Ponera pennsylvanica and especially with Ponera coarctata. The Australian Ponera leae is essentially limited to rain forest in the northern parts of its range, but further south it may be found in dry, lightly forested areas.
Foraging is probably cryptobiotic, though some New Guinea species have been taken straying on the ground surface. Little information is available concerning feeding. However, most species are probably insectivorous. I have conducted feeding experiments with some of the New Guinea and Samoan species, including Ponera xenagos, Ponera elegantula, Ponera tenuis, Ponera incerta and Ponera woodwardi. These were unsuccessful with the larger species, except elegantula, which accepted moderately large (8-12 mm) campodeid and japygid Diplura. Tenuis and incerta accepted smaller (4-6 mm) campodeids, isotomid and sminthurid Collembola, and small newly hatched spiders (2 mm long). Negative feeding response was obtained with eggs and larvae of various ants, small crushed insects of various orders, and small myriapods. Stray workers were never observed carrying prey, and distinct middens of insect or other remains were not located near nests.
Colonies usually contain about 30 workers. Larvae and pupae are not segregated in most cases, but occasionally aggregations of pupae were observed. These may have included the total brood of the colonies involved. Larvae are attached to the floor or walls of the nest galleries by the glutinous abdominal tubercles described above, and the ants move them high up on the walls or ceilings of artificial nests, if they are flooded. Details of nuptial behavior of pennsylvanica were given by Wheeler (1900), and Haskins & Enzmann (1938). The flights appear to be of a pattern typical for ants, with the alates meeting in the air and mating there or on the ground. Colony foundation is non-claustral and independent in pennsylvanica (Kannowski 1959); judging from my observations this is typical for the genus.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- pianmana. Ponera pianmana Xu, 2001c: 223, figs. 31-33 (w.) CHINA.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Holotype. TL 2.2, HL 0.52. HW 0.40, CI 77, SL 0.33, SI 83, PW 0.32, AL 0.67. ED 0.02, ML 0.23, DPW 0.25, PNI 79, PH 0.30, PNL 0.17. LPI 56. Head roughly rectangular, distinctly longer than broad, feebly narrowed forward. In full face view, occipital margin weakly emarginated, occipital corners roundly prominent, lateral sides weakly convex. Masticatory margin of mandible with 3 apical teeth and followed by a row of indistinct minute denticles. Anterior margin of clypeus strongly convex. Antennae short, apex of scape failed to reach occipital corner by 1/4 of its length, antennal club with 5 segments. Eye with only one facet. In profile view, dorsum of thorax weakly convex, promesonotal suture depressed, metanotal groove fine and distinct. Dorsum of propodeum as long as declivity, posterodorsal corner blunt. In profile view petiolar node trapezoid, distinctly narrowed upward, anterior face nearly vertical, posterior face steeply slope, dorsal face convex, anterodorsal corner higher than posterodorsal corner. Subpetiolar process cuneiform, fenestra medium size, anteroventral corner obliquely truncate, posteroventral border with an acute tooth. In dorsal view, petiolar node crescent, anterior and lateral borders roundly convex, posterior border weakly concave, length : width = 1:2. Mandibles smooth and shining, with very sparse fine punctures. Head densely and finely punctured, relatively dull. Thorax, petiole and gaster weakly, densely and finely punctured, relatively shining. Dorsum of head and thorax with dense decumbent pubescence. without erect hairs. Petiole and gaster with sparse suberect hairs and dense decumbent pubescence, apex of gaster, with abundant hairs. Scapes with abundant suberect short hairs and dense decumbent pubescence. Dorsa of tibiae with dense decumbent pubescence, without erect hairs. Body in color brown, antennae and legs brownish yellow.
Holotype: worker, No. A99-47, 1650 m, Pianma, Pianma Town, Lushui County. Yunnan Province, 26-IV-1999, collected by Mr. Li Jiguai in monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest.
- Taylor, R. W. 1967. A monographic revision of the ant genus Ponera Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph, 13: 1–112. PDF
- Xu, Z.-H. 2001c. Four new species of the ant genus Ponera Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Yunnan, China. Entomotaxonomia 23: 217-226 (page 223, figs. 31-33 worker described)